FOMO, Brands and Consumers – about the Reactions of Polish Internet Users to the Activities of Brands in Social Media (Based on CAWI Representative Research)

  • 1 Faculty of Journalism, Information and Book Studies, University of Warsaw


Fear of Missing Out is mainly a subject of psychological research; however, due to its specific nature, it gains an interdisciplinary character. Thanks to this, it can also be analysed from the perspective of media or business. This paper focuses on the threads of the relationship between FOMO and marketing communication online. It realizes the following objectives: it presents the scale of FOMO in Poland; it analyses the phenomenon in the context of consumers’ reactions to basic brand activity on social and it shows differences between the answers given by all the respondents and those with high FOMO. In order to clarify the scope of the research work, four research questions are answered: how do social media users react to the use of particular features of social platforms by brands? What form of posts coming from brands are preferred by Polish Internet users? What is the attitude of the respondents towards advertisements posted on social media portals? Does FOMO influence the answers in any way? The research was based on the nationwide, representative sample of Internet users aged 15+ (N=1060). The tool was the CAWI questionnaire.

Falls das inline PDF nicht korrekt dargestellt ist, können Sie das PDF hier herunterladen.

  • AALBERS G., MCNALLY R.J., HEEREN A., DE WIT S., FRIED E.I. (2018), Social media and depression symptoms: A network perspective, [in:] Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol. 148, pp. 1454–1462.

  • ALEXANDER B., BARRETT K., CUMMING S., HERRON P.P., HOLLAND C., KEANE K., OGBURN J., ORLOWITZ J., THOMAS M.A., TSAO J. (2016), Report from the Information Overload and Underload Workgroup, [in:] Open Scholarship Initiative Proceedings, vol. 1.

  • ALLEN K.A., RYAN T., GRAY D.L., MCINERNEY D.M., WATERS L. (2014), Social Media Use and Social Connectednessin Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfall, [in:] The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, vol. 31, pp. 18–31.

  • ALT D. (2015), College students’ academic motivation, media engagement and fear of missing out, [in:] Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 49, pp. 111–119.

  • ANDREASSEN C., TORSHEIM T., BRUNBORG G., PALLESEN S. (2012), Development of a Facebook Addiction Scale, [in:] Psychological reports, vol. 110, pp. 501-517.

  • ARIEL Y., AVIDAR R. (2015), Information, Interactivity, and Social Media, Atlantic, [in:] Journal of Communication, vol. 23, pp. 19-30.

  • BATORSKI D. (2011), W morzu informacji, [in:] Academia, vol. 3, pp. 24-26.

  • BLACKWELL D., LEAMAN C., TRAMPOSCH R., OSBORNE C., LISS M. (2017), Extraversion, neuroticism, attachment style and fear of missing out as predictors of social media use and addiction, [in:] Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 116, pp. 69–72.

  • BRIGHT L.F., LOGAN K. (2018), Is my fear of missing out (FOMO) causing fatigue? Advertising, social media fatigue, and the implications for consumers and brands, [in:] Internet Research, vol. 28, pp. 1213-1227.

  • CARLY (2019), How to use FOMO marketing on social media [online: December 4, 2019],

  • ÇELIK K.I., ERU O., COP R. (2019), The Effects of Consumers’ FoMo Tendencies On Impulse Buying and The Effects of Impulse Buying on Post-Purchase Regret: An Investigation on Retail Stores, [in:] BRAIN – Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, vol. 10, pp. 124-138.

  • D’AMATO G., CECCHI L., LICCARDI G., PELLEGRINO F., D’AMATO M., SOFIA M. (2012), Social Networks: A New Source of Psychological Stress or a Way to Enhance Self-esteem? Negative and Positive Implications in Bronchial Asthma, [in:] Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology, vol. 22, pp. 402-5.

  • ELHAI J.D., LEVINE J.C., DVORAK R.D., HALL B.J. (2016), Fear of missing out, need for touch, anxiety and depression are related to problematic smartphone use, [in:] Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 63, pp. 509-516.

  • FEATHERSTONE S. (2018), FOMO Marketing: How You Can Win The Attention Economy [online: December 4, 2019],

  • FELIX R., RAUSCHNABEL PP., HINSCH C. (2017), Elements of strategic social media marketing: A holistic framework, [in:] Journal of Business Research, vol. 70, pp.118-126.

  • FLAXMAN S., GOEL S., RAO J.M. (2016), Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and online news consumption, [in:] Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 80, pp. 298–320.

  • FLYNN L., JALALI A., MOREAU K.A. (2015), Learning theory and its application to the use of social media in medical education, [in:] Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 91, pp. 556–560.

  • FUSTER H., CHAMARRO A., OBERST U. (2017), Fear of Missing Out, online social networking and mobile phone addiction: A latent profile approach, [in:] Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l’Educació i de l’Esport, vol. 35, pp. 23-30.

  • GEZGIN D. (2018), Understanding Patterns for Smartphone Addiction: Age, Sleep Duration, Social Network Use and Fear of Missing Out, [in:] Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, vol. 13, pp. 409-421.

  • GIL F., CHAMARRO A., OBERST U. (2016), Addiction to online social networks: A question of “Fear of missing out”?, [in:] Journal of Behavioral Addictions, vol. 4 (suppl. 1), pp. 51.

  • GREENHOW CH., LEWIN C. (2015), Social media and education: reconceptualizing the boundaries of formal and informal learning, [in:] Learning Media and Technology, vol. 41, pp. 1-25.

  • GRZYBOWSKA K. (2019), Najpopularniejsze serwisy społecznościowe. Jak je wykorzystać w marketingu, [in:] Media społecznościowe. [online: December 4, 2019],

  • HAMPTON K.N., LU W., SHIN I. (2016), Digital media and stress: the cost of caring 2.0. Information, [in:] Communication & Society, vol. 1, pp. 1267-1286.

  • HERMAN D. (2010), The Fear of Missing Out (FOMO) [online: December 4, 2019],

  • HODKINSON CH. (2019), ‘Fear of Missing Out’ (FOMO) marketing appeals: A conceptual model, [in:] Journal of Marketing Communications, vol. 25, pp. 65-88.

  • HUNT A., GENTZKOW M., CHUAN Y. (2019), Trends in the diffusion of misinformation on social media, [in:] Research and Politics, pp. 1–8.

  • HUNT M.G., MARX R., LIPSON C., YOUNG J. (2018), No More FOMO: Limiting Social Media Decreases Loneliness and Depression, [in:] Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, vol. 37, pp. 751-768.

  • Influencer Marketing Hub (2019), 50+ Social Media Sites You Need to Know in 2019 [online: December 4, 2019],

  • JAMES T.L., LOWRY P.B., WALLACE L., WARKENTIN M. (2017), The effect of belongingness on obsessive-compulsive disorder in the use of online social networks, [in:] Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 34, pp. 560-596.

  • JUPOWICZ-GINALSKA A., JASIEWICZ J., KISILOWSKA M., BARAN T., WYSOCKI A. (2018), Polacy a lęk przed odłączeniem [online” December 4, 2019],

  • KANG I., CUI H., SON J. (2019), Conformity Consumption Behavior and FoMO. Conformity Consumption Behavior and FoMO, [in:] Sustainability, vol. 11, p. 4734.

  • KEMP S. (2019), Digital 2019 [online: December 1, 2019],

  • KEMP S. (2019), Digital 2019: Poland [online: December 4, 2019],

  • KIRCABURUN K., KOKKINOS C.M., DEMETROVICS Z., KIRÁLY O., GRIFFITHS M.D., ÇOLAK T.S. (2019), Problematic Online Behaviors among Adolescents and Emerging Adults: Associations between Cyberbullying Perpetration, Problematic Social Media Use, and Psychosocial Factorsn, [in:] International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, vol. 7, pp. 891–908.

  • KNOWLES K. (2016), Meet the man behind FOMO. The MEMO [online: December 4, 2019],

  • LAI C., ALTAVILLA D., RONCONI A., ACETO P. (2016), Fear of missing out (FOMO) is associated with activation of the right middle temporal gyrus during inclusion social cue, [in:] Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 61, pp. 516-521.

  • LEBOEUF K. (2016), 2016 update: what happens in one Internet minute? [online: December 4, 2019],

  • (no data), How to use FOMO Effectively [online: December 4, 2019],

  • LIN L.Y., SIDANI J.E, SHENSA A., RADOVIC A., MILLER E., COLDITZ J.B., HOFFMAN B.L., GILES L.M., PRIMARCK B.A. (2016), Association between social media use and depression among U.S. young adults, [in:] Depress Anxiety, vol. 33, pp. 323–331.

  • (2018), FoMO – bardzo skuteczna broń w rękach marketera cz. 1 [online: December 4, 2019],

  • MILYAVSKAYA M., SAFFRAN M., HOPE N., KOESTNER R. (2018), Fear of missing out: prevalence, dynamics, and consequences of experiencing FOMO, [in:] Motivation and Emotion, vol. 42, pp. 725–737.

  • MONACIS L., DE PALO V., GRIFFITHS MD, SINATRA M. (2017), Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, [in:] Journal of Behavioral Addictions, vol. 6, pp. 178–186.

  • OBERST U., WEGMANN E., STODT B., BRAND M., CHAMARRO A. (2017), Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents: The mediating role of fear of missing out, [in:] Journal of Adolescence, vol. 55, pp. 51–60.

  • PRZYBYLSKI A. K., MURAYAMA K., DEHAAN C. R., GLADWELL V. (2013), Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out, [in:] Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, pp. 1841-1848.

  • QIAO F. (2019), Conceptualizing Interactivity on Social Media and Exploring the Effects of Interactivity on Consumers’ Engagement with Online Social-Interactions, [in:] Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, vol. 9, e201913.

  • REINECKE L., AUFENANGER S., BEUTEL M.E., DREIER M., QUIRING O., STARK B., MÜLLER K.W. (2017), Digital stress over the life span: The effects of communication load and internet multitasking on perceived stress and psychological health impairments in a German probability sample, [in:] Media Psychology, vol. 20, pp. 90-115.

  • ROGUSKI A. (2018), Trendy w social media 2018 [online: December 4, 2019],

  • SIDDIQUI S., SINGH T. (2016), Social Media its Impact with Positive and Negative Aspects, [in:] International Journal of Computer Applications Technology and Research, vol. 5, pp. 71-75.

  • SOLT VAN M., RIXOM J., TAYLOR K. (2018), #FOMO: How the Fear of Missing Out Drives Consumer Purchase Decisions, [in:] Association of Marketing Theory and Practice Proceedings, vol. 41,

  • STANASZEK S., CZARNA A.Z. (2018), Narcyz w Sieci: Narcyzm jako osobowościowa determinanta Problemowego Używania Internetu i zachowania w mediach społecznościowych, [in:]: Nowak B.A., Maciąg K. (ed.) Diagnoza współczesnego społeczeństwa – przegląd wybranych aspektów, Lublin, Wydawnictwo Naukowe TYGIEL, pp. 26-49.

  • STEAD H., BIBBY P.A. (2017), Personality, fear of missing out and problematic internet use and their relationship to subjective well-being, [in:] Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 76, pp. 534-540.

  • TAYLOR D.G. (2019), Social Media Usage, FOMO, and Conspicuous Consumption: An Exploratory Study: An Abstract, [in:] Rossi PP., Krey N. (ed.) Finding New Ways to Engage and Satisfy Global Customers. AMSWMC 2018. Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science. Springer, Cham.

  • TUZIAK R. (2016), Big Data: nowe wyzwania a zmiana kultury organizacji, [in:] Opuscula sociologica, vol. 2, pp. 35-47.

  • WEGMANN E., STODT B., BRAND M. (2015), Addictive use of social networking sites can be explained by the interaction of Internet use expectancies, Internet literacy, and psychopathological symptoms, [in:] Journal of Behavioral Addictions, vol. 4, pp. 155–162.

  • WHELAN E., BROOKS S., ISLAM N. (2017), Cognitive control and social media overload, [in:] Twenty-third Americas Conference on Information Systems [online: December 4, 2019],

  • WILSON-NASH C., XIAO S. (2019), From F.O.M.O. to Changxin: A Cross-cultural Exploration of Consumer Response to Newness in the Fast-moving Consumer Goods Industry, [in:] Academy of Marketing 52nd Annual Conference, Regent’s University London, 02.07.2019-04.07.2019, pp. 1-9.

  • VAN DIJCK J. (2013), The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media, Oxford: Oxfrod University Press.

  • VINEREAN S. (2017), Importance of Strategic Social Media Marketing, [in:] Expert Journal of Marketing, vol. 5, pp. 28-35.

  • VOGEL E., ROSE J.P. (2016), Self-reflection and interpersonal connection: Making the most of self-presentation on social media, [in:] Translational Issues in Psychological Science, vol. 2, pp. 294–302.

  • YADAV M., RAHMAN Z. (2017), Measuring consumer perception of social media marketing activities in ecommerce industry: Scale development & validation, [in:] Telematics and Informatics, vol. 34, pp. 1294-1307.

  • WOODS H.C, SCOTT W. (2016), #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem, [in:] Journal of Adolescence, vol. 51, pp. 41-49.


Zeitschrift + Hefte