Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic than explicit necromarketing; the industries of entertainment promotions and insurance use necromarketing appeals more often than others, and necromarketing appeals were more heavily used during primetime. His study forms the base for future studies investigating the impact death has on purchase intentions.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Arndt,J., Solomon T., Kasser, & Sheldon K (2004), The Urge to splurge revisited: Further Reflections on Applying Terror Management Theory to Materialism and Consumer Behavior, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14 (3), 225-29.
Bandura A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice- Hall, Inc.
Barry A., & Yui ll, C. (2012). Understanding the Sociology of Health. An Introduction. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Becker E., (1973). The denial of death, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Begley S., (2007). The Roots of Fear. Newsweek, November 15 (2007). [online]. [2015-10-24]. Available at: www.newsweek.com/roots-fear-94379
Bulbul C. & Menon, G. (2010). The Power of Emotional Appeals in Advertising The Influence of Concrete Versus Abstract Affect On Time-Dependent Decisions. Journal of Advertising Research. 50(2), p. 169-180.
Cooper D. & Goldwater J., & Arndt, J. (2014). Perceived efficacy, conscious fear of death and intentions to tan: Not all fear appeals are created equal. British Journal of Health Psychology, 19(1), 1-15.
Dahl D., Frankenberger, K., & Manchanda, R., (2003). Does It Pay to Shock? Reactions to Shocking and Nonshocking Advertising Content among University Students. Journal of Advertising Research, 268-280.
Dar-Nimrod I. (2012). Viewing death on television increases the appeal of advertised products. Journal of Social Psychology, 152(2), p 199-211.
Das E., Duiven, R., Arendsen, J., & Vermeulen, I. (2014). Exploring killer ads: A terror management account of death in advertisements. Psychology and Marketing, 31(10), 828-842.
Denzin N. (1984). On Understanding Emotion, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Dunn J. & Hoegg J. (2014). The Impact of Fear on Emotional Brand Attachment. Journal of Consumer Research, 41(1), 152-168.
Florian V. & Mikulince, M. (1993). The impact of death-risk experiences and religiosity on the fear of personal death: The case of Israeli soldiers in Lebanon. Omega, 26, 101-111.
Gerbner G. (1980). The Mainstreaming of America: Violence Profile No:11”, Journal of Communication, 30(3), 10-29.
Gore P., Madhava n S., Curry D. & McClurg G. (1998). Persuasive messages, Marketing Health Services, 18(4), 32-43.
Hoelter J., & Hoelter J. (1978). The Relationship Between Fear of Death and Anxiety. Journal of Psychology. 99, 225-26.
Johnson, S. (2014). New Research Sheds Light on Daily Ad Exposures. SJ Insights. [online: September, 29, 2014], https://sjinsights.net/2014/09/29/new-research-sheds-light-on-daily-ad-exposures/
Krajčovič P. (2015). Strategies in media planning. Communication Today, 6(2), p. 20-30.
Liberman N., Trope, Y., & Stephan, E. (2006). “Psychological Distance.” In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (vol. 2). A. W. Kruglanski and E. T. Higgins, eds. New York: Guilford Press.
Macnamara J. (2005). Media content analysis: Its uses; benefit and best practice methodology. Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, 6(1) 1-34.
Maren S. (2008). Pavlovian fear conditioning as a behavioral assay for hippocampus and amygdala function: cautions and caveats. European Journal of Neuroscience. 28 (8), 1661-1666.
Mckenna R. (1990). Marketing is everything. Harvard Business Review, 69 (1), 65-79.
Moore C. & Willia mson, J. (2003). The Universal fear of death and the cultural response. [In:] Handbook of Death & Dying. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage. (p 3-14).
Petrova I. (2011). Attitude to advertising as its social effect. Communication Today, 2 (2), p. 78-88.
Rogers R. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: A revised theory of protection motivation. In Cacioppo, J & Petty, R. (ed.), Social Psychophysiology. New York: Guilford Press.
Schultz R. (1979). Death anxiety: Intuitive and empirical perspectives. In L. BUGEN (Ed.), Death and Dying: Theory, research, and applications. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown. (p. 66-87).
Shelton A. (2007). Frequency of violence in prime time dramas: An issue of gender, presented at the Eastern Communication Association Convention, Providence, R.I., April, 25-29.
Teixeria T. (2014). The Rising Cost of Consumer Attention: Why You Should Care, and What You Can Do About It. Working Paper 14-055 January 17. Available at: http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/14-055_2ef21e7e-7529-4864-b0f0-c64e4169e17f.pdf
Tiedens L. & Linton S. (2001). Judgment Under Emotional Certainty and Uncertainty: The Effects of Specific Emotions on Information Processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (6), p. 973-988
Urien B. & Kilbourne W. (2008). “On the Role of Materialism in the Relationship Between Death Anxiety and Quality of Life”, in NA - Advances in Consumer Research 35. eds. Angela Y. Lee and Dilip Soman, Duluth, MN: Association for Consumer Research, (p. 409-415).
Urwin B. & Venter M. (2014). Shock Advertising: Not So Shocking Anymore. An Investigation among Generation Y. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(21), p. 203-214.
Walter T. & Littlewood J. & Pickering,M. (1995). Death in the news: public invigilation of private emotions. Sociology. 29(4), 579-596.
Witte K. & Allen M. (2000). A Meta-Analysis of Fear Appeals: Implications for Effective Public Health Campaigns. Health Education and Behavior, 27(5), 591-615.
Wojciechowski L., & Shelton A. (2014). Necromarketing in Advertising. In BAJDAK, A. (ed.) Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach. Marketing Communications - Selected Issues. 205, 91-96.
Wojciechowski L. (2010). Nekromarketing - niektoré aspekty jeho vymedzenia [in:] (KO)MÉDIÁ: sborník konferenčních příspěvků ze 4. ročníku mezinárodní konference, Zlín 21.-22.10.2009, UTB, Zlín.