Virulence and Mating Type of Phytophthora infestans Isolates in the Czech Republic

Open access


To evaluate the frequency and stability of the occurrence of P. infestans races and mating types in the Czech Republic, 338 monosporic isolates were collected from 31 sites in different potato-growing areas from 2012 to 2014 and in 2016. In total, 142 isolates were evaluated for virulence and race structure using the detached leaflet assay on Black’s differential set, supplemented with cultivar Sarpo Mira and somatic hybrid REG 46F. With the exception of virulence for resistance genes R9 and Rpi-blb-1, all virulence genes were detected among isolates, with a predominance of genes R1, R3, R7, R10, and R11. Most isolates were virulent to five or more R-genes, with a mean virulence complexity of 7.1. Among the 38 races detected, the most commonly occurring races were and Of the 338 isolates tested by the pairing test and the cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence (CAPS) marker, 40% were of the A1 mating type and 60% were of the A2 mating type, with an A1 : A2 isolate ratio demonstrating the predominance of the A2 mating type each year of the survey.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aav A Skrabule I Bimsteine G Kaart T Williams IH Runno-Paurson E (2015): The structure of mating type metalaxyl resistance and virulence of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from Latvia. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 102 335-324. doi: 10.13080/z-a.2015.102.043.

  • Andrivon D (1994): Race structure and dynamics in populations of Phytophthora infestans. Canadian Journal of Botany 72 1681-1687. doi: 10.1139/b94-206.

  • Ballvora A Ercolano MR Weiss J Meksem K Bormann CA Oberhagemann P Salamini F Gebhardt C (2002): The R1 gene for potato resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) belongs to the leucine zipper/NBS/LRR class of plant resistance genes. The Plant Journal 30 361-371. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2001.01292.x.

  • Black W Mastenbroek C Mills WR Peterson LC (1953): A proposal for an international nomenclature of races of Phytophthora infestans and of genes controlling immunity in Solanum demissum derivates. Euphytica 2 173-179. doi: 10.1007/BF00053724.

  • Bourke PMA (1964): Emergence of potato blight 1843-46. Nature 203 805-808. doi: 10.1038/203805a0.

  • Caten CE Jinks JL (1968): Spontaneous variability of single isolates of Phytophthora infestans. I. Cultural variation. Canadian Journal of Botany 46 329-348. doi: 10.1139/b68-055.

  • Chmielarz M Sobkowiak S Debski K Cooke DEL Brurberg MB Sliwka J (2014): Diversity of Phytophthora infestans from Poland. Plant Pathology 63 203-211. doi: 10.1111/ppa.12076.

  • Cooke DEL Lees AK (2004): Markers old and new for examining Phytophthora infestans diversity. Plant Pathology 53 692-704. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2004.01104.x.

  • Cooke LR Schepers HTAM Hermansen A Bain RA Bradshaw NJ Ritchie F Shaw DS Evenhuis A Kessel GJT Wander JGN Andersson B Hansen JG Hannukkala A Naerstad R Nielsen BJ (2011): Epidemiology and integrated control of potato late blight in Europe. Potato Research 54 183-222. doi: 10.1007/s11540-011-9187-0.

  • Flier WG Kroon LPNM Hermansen A van Raaij HMG Speiser B Tamm L Fuchs JG Lambion J Razzaghian J Andrivon D Wilcockson S Leifert C (2007): Genetic structure and pathogenicity of populations of Phytophthora infestans from organic potato crops in France Norway Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Plant Pathology 56 562-572. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01571.x.

  • Flor HH (1971): Current status of the gene-for-gene concept. Annual Review of Phytopathology 9 275-296. doi: 10.1146/

  • Fry W (2008): Phytophthora infestans: the plant (and R gene) destroyer. Molecular Plant Pathology 9 385-402. doi: 10.1111/j.1364-3703.2007.00465.x.

  • Haverkort AJ Struik PC Visser RGF Jacobsen E (2009): Applied biotechnology to combat late blight in potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. Potato Research 52 249-264. doi: 10.1007/s11540-009-9136-3.

  • Hermansen A Hannukkala A Naerstad RH Brurberg MB (2000): Variation in populations of Phytophthora infestans in Finland and Norway: mating type metalaxyl resistance and virulence phenotype. Plant Pathology 49 11-22. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3059.2000.00426.x.

  • Jo KR (2013): Unveiling and deploying durability of late blight resistance in potato: from natural stacking to cisgenic stacking. Dissertation Wageningen University.

  • Judelson HS Spielman LJ Shattock RC (1995): Genetic mapping and non-Mendelian segregation of mating type loci in the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. Genetics 141 503-512.

  • Lehtinen A Hannukkala A Andersson B Hermansen A Le VH Naerstad R Brurberg MB Nielsen BJ Hansen JG Yuen J (2008): Phenotypic variation in Nordic populations of Phytophthora infestans in 2003. Plant Pathology 57 227-234. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01739.x.

  • Malcolmson JF Black W (1966): New R genes in Solanum demissum Lindl. and their complementary races of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Euphytica 15 199-203. doi: 10.1007/BF00022324.

  • Mazakova J Taborsky V Zouhar M Rysanek P Hausvater E Dolezal P (2006): Occurrence and distribution of mating types A1 and A2 of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science 42 41-48.

  • Mazakova J Zouhar M Rysanek P Taborsky V Hausvater E Dolezal P (2010): Mating type distribution of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary in the Czech Republic in 2007 and 2008. Plant Protection Science 46 89-97.

  • Michalska MA Sobkowiak S Flis B Zimnoch-Guzowska E (2016): Virulence and aggressiveness of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected in Poland from potato and tomato plants identified no strong specificity. European Journal of Plant Pathology 144 325-336. doi: 10.1007/s10658- 015-0769-6.

  • Murashige T Skoog F (1962): A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15 473-497. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x.

  • Niederhauser JS (1991): Phytophthora infestans: the Mexican connection. In: Lucas JA Shattock RC Shaw DS Cooke LR (eds): Phytophthora. Cambridge University Press Cambridge 25-45.

  • Pilet F Pelle R Ellisseche D Andrivon D (2005): Efficacy of the R2 resistance gene as a component for the durable management of potato late blight in France. Plant Pathology 54 723-732. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2005.01288.x.

  • Rietman H Bijsterbosch G Cano LM Lee HR Vossen JH Jacobsen E Visser RGF Kamoun S Vleeshouwers VGAA (2012): Qualitative and quantitative late blight resistance in the potato cultivar Sarpo Mira is determined by the perception of five distinct RXLR effectors. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25 910-919. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-01-12-0010-R.

  • Runno-Paurson E Kotkas K Tahtjarv T Williams IH Mand M (2011): Temporal changes in phenotypic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in northern Estonia. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 98 205-212.

  • Savazzini F Galletti S (2015): Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Italian Phytophthora infestans isolates. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 54 524-530. doi: 10.14601/ Phytopathol_Mediterr-16057.

  • Sedlakova V (2010): Creation and molecular detection of potato somatic hybrids with higher level of late blight resistance. Dissertation Czech University of Life Sciences Prague.

  • Sliwka J Sobkowiak S Lebecka R Avendano-Corcoles J Zimnoch-Guzowska E (2006): Mating type virulence aggressiveness and metalaxyl resistance of isolates of Phytophthora infestans in Poland. Potato Research 49 155-166. doi: 10.1007/s11540-006-9013-2.

  • van der Vossen E Sikkema A Hekkert BTL Gros J Stevens P Muskens M Wouters D Pereira A Stiekema W Allefs S (2003): An ancient R gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans in cultivated potato and tomato. Plant Journal 36 867-882. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2003.01934.x.

  • van Poppel PMJA Huigen DJ Govers F (2009): Differential recognition of Phytophthora infestans races in potato R4 breeding lines. Phytopathology 99 1150-1155. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-99-10-1150.

  • Zhu SX Vossen JH Bergervoet M Nijenhuis M Kodde L Kessel GJT Vleeshouwers V Visser RGF Jacobsen E (2015): An updated conventional and a novel GM potato late blight R gene differential set for virulence monitoring of Phytophthora infestans. Euphytica 202 219-234. doi: 10.1007/s10681-014-1276-0.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.6

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.212
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.462

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 382 198 3
PDF Downloads 198 127 12