German Shepherd Dog Milk Composition and Its Changes During Lactation

Open access

Abstract

Milk composition of nine lactating German Shepherd nursing females was studied. The experiment took place at the breeding facility of Police of the Czech Republic (breeding centre for service dogs in Domažlice) in days 2−30 of the females’ lactation. Females were given a commercial granulated feeding mixture (starter category). Canine milk samples were analyzed using an infra-red instrument MilkoScan FT 120. Calculated mean values for colostrum (day 2 postpartum) and normal milk (days 4−29 postpartum) were: 23.86 and 24.63% for total solids, 8.14 and 7.22% for protein, 6.04 and 5.76% for casein, 10.22 and 11.32% for fat, 3.40 and 4.48% for lactose. German Shepherd milk showed almost no variation in composition after day 4 of lactation. Differences observed between colostrum and normal milk composition were statistically insignificant but not for lactose. No significant differences in density and other composition parameters between colostrum and normal milk were identified.

Abderhalden E (1899): The relations of the rate of growth of the suckling to the composition of the milk in the dog, pig, sheep, goat and guinea pig. Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie, 27, 408-462. (in German) Adkins Y, Lepine AJ, Lönnerdal B (2001): Changes in protein and nutrient composition of milk throughout lactation in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 62, 1266-1272. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2001.62.1266.

Anderson HD, Elvehjem CA, Gonce JE (1940): A comparison of the nutritive values of raw, pasteurized and evaporated milks for dog. Journal of Nutrition, 20, 433-443.

Bernabucci U, Basiricò L, Morera P (2013): Impact of hot environment on colostrum and milk composition. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 59, 67-83. doi: 10.1170/T948.

Costăchescu E, Hoha G, Fotea L (2011): Research regarding the lactating period of the bitch. Lucrări Ştiinţifice - Seria Zootehnie, 55, 180-183.

Farrell Jr. HM, Malin EL, Brown EM, Qi PX (2006): Casein micelle structure: What can be learned from milk synthesis and structural biology? Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 11, 135-147. doi: 10.1016/j.cocis.2005.11.005.

Heddle RJ, Rowley D (1975): Dog immunoglobulins. 1. Immunochemical characterization of dog serum, parotid saliva, colostrum, milk and small bowel fluid. Immunology, 29, 185-195.

Kienzle E, Meyer H, Lohrie M (1985): The influence of carbohydrate- free rations with varying protein-energy relations on the fetal development and vitality of puppies as well as the lactic composition of female dogs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 54, 76-77.

Lönnerdal B, Keen CL, Hurley LS, Fisher GL (1981): Developmental changes in the composition of Beagle dog milk. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 42, 662-666.

Luick JR, Parker HR, Andersen AC (1960): Composition of Beagle dog milk. American Journal of Physiology, 199, 731-732.

Mundt H-C, Thomée A, Meyer H (1981): Energy and protein supply for suckling welpen through the bitch milk. Kleintierpraxis, 26, 353-360. (in German) Oftedal OT (1984): Lactation in the dog - milk composition and intake by puppies. Journal of Nutrition, 114, 803-812.

Playford RJ, Macdonald CE, Johnson W (2000): Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 5-14.

Rüsse I (1961): The lactation of the bitch. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin, 8, 252-281. (in German) Scantlebury M, Butterwick R, Speakman JR (2000): Energetics of lactation in domestic dog (Canis familiaris) breeds of two sizes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 125, 197-210. doi: 10.1016/S1095-6433(99)00175-0.

Segalini V (2008): Colostrum in dogs and cats. Point Vétérinaire, 39, 23-28. (in French)

Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica

The Journal of Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.80

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.230
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.473

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 186 186 12
PDF Downloads 92 92 11