Genetic Diversity Of Plukenetia Volubilis L. Assessed By ISSR Markers

Open access


The diversity and genetic relationships in 173 sacha inchi samples were analyzed using ISSR markers. Thirty ISSR primers were used, only 8 showed variability in tested samples. ISSR fragments ranged from 200 to 2500 bp. The mean number of bands per primer was 12 and the average number of polymorphic bands per primer was 11. The lowest percentages of polymorphic bands (27%), gene diversity (0.103), and Shannon’s information index (0.15) were exhibited by the Santa Lucia population, which was also geographically most distant. This fact may be attributed to a very small size of this group. In contrast, the Dos de Mayo population exhibited the highest percentage of polymorphic bands (78%), and the Santa Cruz population the highest Nei’s gene diversity index (0.238) and Shannon’s information index (0.357). The obtained level of genetic variability was 36% among tested populations and 64% within populations. Although the diversity indices were low, a cluster analysis revealed 8 clusters containing mainly samples belonging to individual populations. Principal coordinate analysis clearly distinguished Chumbaquihui, Pucallpa, Dos de Mayo, and Aguas de Oro populations, the others were intermixed. The obtained results indicated the level of genetic diversity present in this location of Peru, although it is influenced by anthropological aspects and independent on the geographical distances.

* Supported by the Internal Grant Agency of the Czech University of Life Science Prague (CIGA), Project No. 20135004, by the Internal Grant Agency of the Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague (IGA), Project No. 20145020, and by the Foundation Nadání Josefa, Marie a Zdeňky Hlávkových.


  • Aliyu OM, Awopetu JA (2007): Assessment of genetic diversity in three populations of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) using protein-isoenzyme-electrophoretic analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 54, 1489–1497. doi: 10.1007/s10722-006-9138-9.

  • Alvarado CT (2008): Collection, identification, taxonomic determination and analysis of concentration of fatty acids of the sacha inchi ecotypes in the Amazonas region. Peru-biodiverso Project. Lima, Peru. (in Spanish)

  • Arévalo G (1995): Cultivation of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) in Amazon. National Programme of Research in Genetic Resources and Biotechnology – PRONARGEB, Experimental Station El Porvenir, Tarapoto. (in Spanish)

  • Beebee TJC, Rowe G (2008): An introduction to molecular ecology. Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Bekele A, Feyissa T, Tesfaye K (2014): Genetic diversity of anchote (Coccinia abyssinica (Lam.) Cong.) from Ethiopia as revealed by ISSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 61, 707–719.

  • Bondiolli P, Della Bella L, Rettke P (2006): Alpha linolenic acid rich oils: composition of Plukenetia volubilis (Sacha Inchi) oil from Peru. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse, 123, 120–123.

  • Bussmann RW, Téllez C, Glenn A (2009): Plukenetia huayllabambana sp. nov. (Euphorbiaceae) from the Upper Amazon of Peru. Nordic Journal of Botany, 27, 313–315. doi: 10.1111/j.1756-1051.2009.00460.x.

  • Bussmann RW, Zambrana NP, Téllez C (2013): Plukenetia carolis-vegae (Euphorbiaceae) – a new useful species from Northern Peru. Economic Botany, 67, 387–392. doi: 10.1007/s12231-013-9247-2.

  • Corazón-Guivin M, Castro-Ruiz D, Chota-Macuyama W, Rodríguez A, Cachique D, Manco E, Del-Castillo D, Renno JF, García-Dávila C (2008): Genetic characterization of accessions from Sacha Inchi National Germplasm Bank in San Martin region. Folia Amazónia, 18, 23–31. (in Spanish)

  • Dostálek T, Münzbergová Z, Plačková I (2014): High genetic diversity in isolated populations of Thesium ebracteatum at the edge of its distribution range. Conservation Genetics, 15, 75–86. doi: 10.1007/s10592-013-0522-7.

  • Doyle JJ, Doyle JL (1987): A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin, 19, 11-15.

  • Fisher M, Husi R, Prati D, Peintinger M, van Kleunen M, Schmid B (2000): RAPD variation among and within small and large populations of the rare clonal plant Ranunculus reptans (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany, 87, 1128–1137. doi: 10.2307/2656649.

  • Flores D (2010): Data base of Perubiodiverso project. Bibliographic information about history and traditional uses of 3 selected plants. Biocomercioperu Project. Lima, Peru. (in Spanish)

  • Guillen MD, Ruiz A, Cabo N, Chirinos R, Pascual G (2003): Characterization of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil by FTIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. Comparison with linseed oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 80, 755–762. doi: 10.1007/s11746-003-0768-z.

  • Gupta S, Srivastava M, Mishra GP, Naik PK, Chauhan RS, Tiwari SK, Kumar M, Singh R (2008): Analogy of ISSR and RAPD markers for comparative analysis of genetic diversity among different Jatropha curcas genotypes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 4230–4243.

  • Hadian J, Bigdeloo M, Nazeri V, Khadivi-Khub A (2014): Assessment of genetic and chemical variability in Thymus caramanicus. Molecular Biology Reports, 41, 3201–3210. doi: 10.1007/s11033-014-3180-z.

  • Hamaker BR, Valles C, Gilman R, Hardmeier RM, Clark D, García HH, Gonzales AE, Kohlstad I, Castro M (1992): Amino acid and fatty acid profiles of the Inca peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.). Cereal Chemistry, 69, 461–463.

  • Hartl DL, Clark AC (eds) (2007): Inbreeding, population subdivision, and migration. In: Principles of population genetics. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, USA, 257.

  • Heywood VH, Iriondo JM (2003): Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biological Conservation, 113, 321–335. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(03)00121-6.

  • Nei M (1973): Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 70, 3321–3323. doi: 10.1073/pnas.70.12.3321.

  • Nybon H (2004): Comparison of different nuclear DNA markers for estimating intraspecific genetic diversity in plants. Molecular Ecology, 13, 1143–1155.

  • Rao ES, Kadirvel P, Symonds RC, Geethanjali S, Ebert AW (2012): Using SSR markers to map genetic diversity and population structure of Solanum pimpinellifolium for development of a core collection. Plant Genetic Resources, 10, 38–48. doi: 10.1017/S1479262111000955.

  • Rodrigues HS, Borem de Oliveira A, Gomes Lopes MT, Cruz CD, Chaves FCM, da Silva Bentes JL (2013): Genetic diversity of Sacha Inchi accessions detected by AFLP molecular markers. Revista de Ciencias Agrárias/Amazonian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 56, 55–60. doi: 10.4322/rca.2013.081. (in Portuguese)

  • Rodríguez Á, Corazón-Guivin M, Cachique D, Mejía K, Del Castillo D, Renno J-F, García-Dávila C (2010): Morphologic differentiation and ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) in genus Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae) in Peruvian Amazon: a new species proposal. Peruvian Journal of Biology, 17, 325–330. (in Spanish)

  • Sathe SK, Hamaker BR, Sze-Tao KWC, Venkatachalam M (2002): Isolation, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel water soluble protein from Inca peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 4906–4908. doi: 10.1021/jf020126a.

  • Shilpha J, Silambarasan T, Pandian SK, Ramesh M (2013): Assessment of genetic diversity in Solanum trilobatum L., an important medicinal plant from South India using RADP and ISSR markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60, 807–818.

Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica

The Journal of Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.78

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.398
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.688


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 31 31 22
PDF Downloads 6 6 4