A Survey on Renewable Energy Development in Malaysia: Current Status, Problems and Prospects

Open access


Energy demand in Malaysia is increasing over seven per cent a year, while forty per cent of the energy is supplied from conventional fossil fuel. However, a number of social barriers have mired the social acceptance of renewable energy among the users. This study investigates the current status of renewable energy, problems and future outlook of renewable energy in Malaysia. A total of 200 respondents were surveyed from Klang Valley in Malaysia. Majority of the respondents use energy to generate electricity. Although some respondents reported using solar energy, there is lack of retail availability for solar energy. The findings show that limited information on renewable energy technologies, lack of awareness, and limited private sector engagement emerged as major barriers to sustainable renewable energy development. In addition, the respondents suggest for increasing policy support from the government to make information more accessible to mass users, provide economic incentives to investors and users, and promote small-community based renewable energy projects. The study suggests that the government begin small scale projects to build awareness on renewable energy, while academically, higher learning institutions include renewable energy syllabus in their academic curriculum. The study concluded that to have sustainable renewable energy development, government’s initiative, private sector engagement and users awareness must be given priority.

[1] Wüstenhagen R., Wolsink M., Bürer M. J. Social Acceptance of Renewable Energy Innovation: an Introduction to the Concept. Energy Policy 2007:35:2683-2691. doi:

[2] Alam S. S., Hashim N. H. N., Rashid M., Omar N. A., Ahsan N., Ismail M. D. Small-scale households renewable energy usage intention: Theoretical development and empirical settings. Renewable Energy 2014:68:255-263. doi:

[3] Mallett A. Social acceptance of renewable energy innovations: The role of technology cooperation in urban Mexico. Energy Policy 2007:35(5):2790-2798. doi:

[4] Richards G., Noble B., Belcher K. Barriers to renewable energy development: A case study of large-scale wind energy in Saskatchewan, Canada. Energy Policy 2012:42:691-698. doi:

[5] Stephenson J., Loannou M. Social Acceptance of Renewable Electricity Developments in New Zealand. Centre for the Study of Agriculture, Food and Environment. University of Otago: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority, 2010.

[6] Zografakis N., Sifaki E., Pagalou M., Nikitaki G., Psarakis V., Tsagarakis K. P. Assessment of public acceptance and willingness to pay for renewable energy sources in Crete. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010:14(3):1088-1095. doi:

[7] Ahmad Fauzi H. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Malaysia. Energy Commission, 2009 [Online]. Available: www.teeam.com/st_paper_15july09.pdf

[8] Jacobsson S., Johnson A. The diffusion of renewable energy technology: an analytical framework and key issues for research. Energy Policy 2000:28(9):625-640. doi:

[9] Rogers E. M. Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962.

[10] Straub E. T. Understanding Technology Adoption: Theory and Future Directions for Informal Learning. Review of Educational Research 2009:79(2):625-649. doi:

[11] Dalton G. J., Lockington D. A., Baldock T. E. A survey of tourist attitudes to renewable energy supply in Australian hotel accommodation. Renewable Energy 2008:33(10):2174-2185. doi:

[12] Faiers A., Neame C. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems. Energy Policy 2006:34(14):1797-1806. doi:

[13] Sovacool B. K., Bulan L. C. Energy security and hydropower development in Malaysia: The drivers and challenges facing the Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE). Renewable Energy 2012:40(1):113-129. doi:

[14] Ong H. C., Mahlia T. M. I., Masjuki H. H. A review on energy pattern and policy for transportation sector in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012:16(1):532-542. doi:

[15] Mekhilef S., Safari A., Mustaffa W. E. S., Saidur R., Omar R., Younis M. A. A. Solar energy in Malaysia: Current state and prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012:16(1):386-396. doi:

[16] Chua S. C., Oh T. H. Solar energy outlook in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2012:16(1):564-574. doi:

[17] Tye Y. Y., Lee K. T., Wan Abdullah W. N., Leh C. P. Second-generation bioethanol as a sustainable energy source in Malaysia transportation sector: Status, potential and future prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011:15(9):4521-4536. doi:

[18] Sovacool B. K., Drupady I. M. Examining the Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Program in Malaysia. Energy Policy 2011:39(11):7244-7256. doi:

[19] Mohammed M. A. A., Salmiaton A., Wan Azlina W. A. K. G., Mohammad Amran M. S., Fakhru’l-Razi A., Taufiq- Yap Y. H. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011:15(2):1258-1270. doi:

[20] Poh K. M., Kong H. W. Renewable energy in Malaysia: a policy analysis. Energy for Sustainable Development 2002:6(3):31-39. doi:

[21] Hoi Why K. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - Prospects and problems. Renewable Energy 1999:16(1-4):1122-1127.

[22] Mohd Noh D. Renewable energy update: Malaysia. Renewable Energy 1995:6(4):435-439. doi:

[23] Mekhilef S., Saidur R., Safari A., Mustaffa W. E. S. B. Biomass energy in Malaysia: Current state and prospects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011:15(7):3360-3370. doi:

[24] Ahmad S., Kadir M. Z. A. A., Shafie S. Current perspective of the renewable energy development in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011:15(2):897-904. doi:

[25] Hashim H., Ho W. S. Renewable energy policies and initiatives for a sustainable energy future in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011:15(9):4780-4787. doi:

[26] Jayaraman K., Haron H., Sung G. B., Lin S. K. Consumer reflections on the usage of plastic bags to parcel hot edible items: an empirical study in Malaysia. Journal of Cleaner Production 2011:19(13):1527-1535. doi:

[27] Oh T. H., Pang S. Y., Chua S. C. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010:14(4):1241-1252. doi:

[28] Chua S. C., Oh T. H. Green progress and prospect in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2011:15(6):2850-2861. doi:

[29] Manan Z. A., Shiun L. J., Alwi S. R. W., Hashim H., Kannan K. S., Mokhtar N., Ismail A. Z. Energy Efficiency Award system in Malaysia for energy sustainability. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010:14(8):2279-2289. doi:

[30] Gan P. Y., Li Z. An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia. Energy Policy 2008:36(2):890-899. doi:

[31] Malhotra N. K. Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 5th ed. India: Pearson Education, 2008.

[32] Gorsuch R. L. Factor Analysis, 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1983.

[33] Kline P. An Easy Guide to Factor Analysis. New York: Routledge, 1994.

[34] Hair J. F. J., Anderson R. E., Tatham R. L., Black W. C. Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998.

[35] Rogers J. C., Simmons E. A., Convery I., Weatherall A. Social impacts of community renewable energy projects: findings from a woodfuel case study. Energy Policy 2011:42:239-247. doi:

[36] Rogers J. C., Simmons E. A., Convery I., Weatherall A. Public perceptions of opportunities for community-based renewable energy projects. Energy Policy 2008:36(11):4217-4226. doi:

[37] Fredric C. M. Green electricity policies in the United States: case study. Energy Policy 2005:33(18):2398-2410. doi:

[38] West J., Bailey I., Winter M. Renewable energy policy and public perceptions of renewable energy: A cultural theory approach. Energy Policy 2010:38:5739-5748. doi:

Environmental and Climate Technologies

The Journal of Riga Technical University

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 3.03

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 1.045
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 2.004

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1982 1925 134
PDF Downloads 1530 1512 103