Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory interleukins have been studied to elucidate the role that inflammation plays in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate inflammation in CAP, by analyzing in dynamic, serum levels of six interleukins (IL) and their predictive value regarding adverse outcomes.
Materials and methods: Forty adult patients with CAP, admitted in the Teaching Hospital of Infectious Diseases, Cluj-Napoca, Romania from December 2015 to February 2017, were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory: IL1β, TNF-α, IL-6, anti-inflammatory: IL-10 and IL-4, along with IL-17A were analyzed in dynamic, on day 1 and day 4.The receiver – operator curves (ROC) were used to analyze the outcome prediction of IL.
Results: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 have decreased significantly in dynamic, while IL-4 increases. IL-17A has acted like a pro-inflammatory cytokine. We have found a correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 (r=0.429, p=0.000), IL-6 and IL-17A (r=0.295, p=0.008) and IL-10 and IL-17A (r=0.475, p=0.000). Out of 40 patients, 9 had adverse outcomes, consisting in 9 relapses from which 1 died. IL-6 discriminates alone between adverse and favorable outcomes. With multivariate analysis and multiple regression of all combined IL, we have found that there is a predictive model regarding adverse outcomes.
Conclusion: IL-10 and IL-17A behave like pro-inflammatory cytokines. IL-6 is a predictive marker for adverse outcomes alone. All IL studied together have an impact on adverse outcomes.
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