Involvement of inflammatory cytokines in obesity and its complications

Mariana Cornelia Tilinca 1 , Eniko Csilla Barabas-Hajdu 1 , Gizella Tusa Ferencz 2 ,  and Eniko Nemes-Nagy 1
  • 1 University of Medicine and Pharmacy, , Tirgu Mures
  • 2 Department of Internal Medicine and Hematology, University Hospital Linköping

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Stepien M, Stepien A, Wlazel RN, Paradowski M, Banach M, Rysz J. Obesity indices and inflammatory markers in obese non-diabetic normo- and hypertensive patients: a comparative pilot study. Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Feb;13(1):29. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-29

  • 2. Rodríguez-Hernández H, Simental-Mendía LE, Rodríguez-Ramírez G, Reyes-Romero MA. Obesity and inflammation: epidemiology, risk factors and markers of inflammation. Int J Endocrinol. 2013 Apr;17:1-11. DOI: 10.1155/2013/678159

  • 3. Popa S, Moţa M, Popa A, Moţa E, Serafinceanu C, Guja C et al. Prevalence of overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome and atypical cardiometabolic phenotypes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Sep;39(9):1045-53. DOI: 10.1007/s40618-016-0470-4

  • 4. Mota M, Popa SG, Mota E, Mitrea A, Catrinoiu D, Cheta DM et al. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study. J Diabetes. 2016 May;8(3):336-44. DOI: 10.1111/1753-0407.12297

  • 5. Grantham JP, Staub K, Rühli FJ, Henneberg M. Modern diet and metabolic variance-a recipe for disaster? Nutr J. 2014 Feb;13(1):15. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-15

  • 6. Zeyda M, Huber J, Prager G, Stulnig TM. Inflammation correlates with markers of T-cells subsets including regulatory T cells in adipose tissue from obese patients. Obesity. 2011 Apr;19(4):743–8. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2010.123

  • 7. Marventano S, Kolacz P, Castellano S, Galvano F, Buscemi S, Mistretta A, et al. A review of recent evidence in human studies of n-3 and n-6 PUFA intake on cardiovascular disease, cancer, and depressive disorders: does the ratio really matter?. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2015 Aug;66(6):611-22. DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2015.1077790

  • 8. Ilich JZ, Kelly OJ, Kim Y, Spicer MT. Low-grade chronic inflammation perpetuated by modern diet as a promoter of obesity and osteoporosis. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2014 Jun;65(2):139-48. DOI: 10.2478/10004-1254-65-2014-2541

  • 9. Morris MJ, Beilharz JE, Maniam J, Reichelt AC, Westbrook RF. Why is obesity such a problem in the 21st century? The intersection of palatable food, cues and reward pathways, stress, and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Nov;58:36-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.12.002

  • 10. Charo IF, Thaubman MB: Chemokines in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, Circ Res. 2004;95:858-866. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.0000146672.10582.17

  • 11. Lasselin J, Magne E, Beau C, Ledaguenel P, Dexpert S, Aubert A, et al. Adipose Inflammation in Obesity: Relationship With Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers and Association With Surgery-Induced Weight Loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan;99(1):E53-61. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2013-2673

  • 12. Almuraikhy S, Kafienah W, Bashah M, Diboun I, Jaganjac M, Al-Khelaifi F, et al. Interleukin-6 induces impairment in human subcutaneous adipogenesis in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2016 Nov;59(11):2406–16. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-4031-3

  • 13. Orr SF, Kennedy AJ, Hasty AH: Isolation of Adipose Tissue Immune Cells, J Vis Exp. 2013;75:50707. DOI: 10.3791/50707

  • 14. Zarkesh-Esfahani H., Pockley AG, Z. Wu, Hellewell PG, Weetman AP, Ross RJM: Leptin indirectly activates human neutrophils via induction of TNF-α. J Immunol. 2004;172(3):1809–1814. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.172.3.1809

  • 15. Al-Hamodi Z, Molham AH, Al-Meeri A, Saif-Ali R. Association of adipokines, leptin/adiponectin ratio and C-reactive protein with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014 Sep;6(1):99. DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-6-99

  • 16. Pires A, Martins P, Pereira AM, Marinho J, Silva PV, Marques M, et al. Pro-inflammatory triggers in childhood obesity: correlation between leptin, adiponectin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in a group of obese Portuguese children. Rev Port Cardiol. 2014 Nov;33(11):691-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.repc.2014.04.004

  • 17. Nascimento H, Coimbra S, Rêgo C, Santos-Silva A, Belo L. Adiponectin, Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Paediatric Obese Patients: Impact of Interventional Studies, Ed. Gordeladze JO, in Adiposity-Omics and Molecular Understanding, Ed. InTech, Croatia, 2017, 83-111.

  • 18. Jamaluddin MS, Weakley SM, Yao Q, Chen C. Resistin: functional roles and therapeutic considerations for cardiovascular disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb;165(3):622-32. DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01369.x

  • 19. Tan BK, Adya R, Farhatullah S, Lewandowski KC, O’Hare P, Lehnert H. et al.: Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, is decreased in overweight insulin resistant woman with the polycystic ovary syndrome: ex vivo and in vivo regulation of omentin-1 by insulin and glucose. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):801-808. DOI: 10.2337/db07-0990

  • 20. Shibata R, Ouchi N, Takahashi R, Terakura Y, Ohashi K, Ikeda N. et al. Omentin as a novel biomarker of metabolic risk factors. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2012, 4:37. DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-4-37

  • 21. Kataoka Y, Shibata R, Ohashi K, Kambara T, Enomoto T, Uemura Y, et al: Omentin Prevents Myocardial Ischemic Injury Through AMP-Activated Protein Kinase- and Akt-Dependent Mechanisms. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 June;63(24):2722-2733. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.032

  • 22. Lesná J, Tichá A, Hyšpler R, Musil F, Bláha, Sobotka L. et al. Omentin-1 plasma levels and cholesterol metabolism in obese patients with diabetes mellitus type 1: impact of weight reduction. Nutr Diabetes. 2015 Nov;5(11):e183. DOI: 10.1038/nutd.2015.33

  • 23. Dimova R, Tankova T. The Role of Vaspin in the Development of Metabolic and Glucose Tolerance Disorders and Atherosclerosis. Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Res Int. 2015 Apr;1-7.

  • 24. Reaux-Le Goazigo A, Bodineau L, De Mota N, Jeandel L, Chartrel N, Knauf C, et al. Apelin and the proopiomelanocortin system: a new regulatory pathway of hypothalamic alpha-MSH release. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2011;301:E955–E966. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00090.2011

  • 25. Maguire JJ, Kleinz MJ, Pitkin SL, Davenport AP. [Pyr1] apelin-13 identified as the predominant apelin isoform in the human heart: vasoactive mechanisms and inotropic action in disease. Hypertension 2009;54:598–604. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.134619

  • 26. Soriguer F, Garrido-Sanchez L, Garcia-Serrano S, Garcia-Almeida J M, Garcia-Arnes J, Tinahones F J, et al. Apelin levels are increased in morbidly obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obes Surg 2009;19:1574–1580. DOI: 10.1007/s11695-009-9955-y

  • 27. Attane C, Foussal C, Le Gonidec S, Benani A, Daviaud D, Wanecq E et al. Apelin treatment increases complete Fatty Acid oxidation, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, and biogenesis in muscle of insulin-resistant mice. Diabetes 2012;61:310–320. DOI: 10.2337/db11-0100

  • 28. Dray C, Knauf C, Daviaud D, Waget A, Boucher J, Buleon M, et al. Apelin stimulates glucose utilization in normal and obese insulinresistant mice. Cell Metab. 2008; 8:437–445. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.10.003

  • 29. Guvenc Y, Var A, Goker A, Kuscu NK. Assessment of serum chemerin, vaspin and omentin-1 levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Int Med Res. 2016 Aug; 44(4):796-805. DOI: 10.1177/0300060516645421

  • 30. Guzel EC, Celik C, Abali R, Kucukyalcin V, Celik E, Guzel M et al. Omentin and chemerin and their association with obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014 Jun;30(6):419-22. DOI: 10.3109/09513590.2014.888412

  • 31. Celik MN, Sogut MU. Experimental investigation of the effect on the chemerin adipokine and obesity of pro-biotic use in obese rats, Int J Health Serv. 2017;2(2):58-64.

  • 32. Eisinger K, Bauer S, Schäffler A, Walter R, Neumann E, Buechler C, et al. Chemerin induces CCL2 and TLR4 in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Experim Molec Path. 2012 Febr;92(1):90-6.

  • 33. Ganjali S, Sahebkar A, Mahdipour E, Jamialahmadi K, Torabi S, Akhlaghi S et al. Investigation of the Effects of Curcumin on Serum Cytokines in Obese Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Sci World J. 2014 Febr;1-6.

  • 34. Ciortea R, Mihu D, Mihu CM. Association Between Visceral Fat, IL-8 and Endometrial Cancer. Anticancer Res 2014, 34:379-384.

  • 35. Chan LP, Liu C, Chiang FY, Wang LF, Lee KW, Chen WT, et al. IL-8 promotes inflammatory mediators and stimulates activation of p38 MAPK/ERK-NF-κB pathway and reduction of JNK in HNSCC. Oncotarget, 2017;8(34),56375–56388. DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.16914

  • 36. Naour N, Rouault C, Fellahi S, Lavoie ME, Poitou C, Keophiphath M et al. Cathepsins in human obesity: changes in energy balance predominantly affect cathep-sins in adipose tissue and in circulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr;95(4):1861-8. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-1894

  • 37. Brissova M, Aamodt K, Brahmachary P, Prasad N, Hong JY, Dai C, et al. Islet Microenvironment, Modulated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Signaling, Promotes β Cell Regeneration. Cell Metab. 2014 March, 19(3):498-511. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.02.001

  • 38. Elias I, Franckhauser S and Fatima Bosch. New insights into adipose tissue VEGF-A actions in the control of obesity and insulin resistance. Adipocyte. 2013 Apr;2(2):109–112. DOI: 10.4161/adip.22880

  • 39. Daltro PS, Alves PS, Castro MF, Azevedo CM, Vasconcelos JF, Allahdadi KJ, et al. Administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor accompanied with a balanced diet improves cardiac function alterations induced by high fat diet in mice. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2015 Dec;15:162. DOI: 10.1186/s12872-015-0154-6

  • 40. Lee Y, Song YS, Fang CH, So BI, Park JY, Joo HW et al. Anti-obesity effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima fatty rats. PLoS One. 2014 Aug;9(8):e105603. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105603

  • 41. Fernandez Alvarez KL, Beldi M, Sarmanho F, Rossetti RAM, Silveira CRF, Mota GR, et al. Local and systemic immunomodulatory mechanisms triggered by Human Papillomavirus transformed cells: a potential role for G-CSF and neutrophils. Nature. 2017 Aug;Scientific Report 7:9002. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-09079-3

  • 42. Nov O, Shapiro H, Ovadia H, Tarnovscki T, Dvir I, Shemesh E, et al. Interleukin-1β regulates fat-liver crosstalk in obesity by auto-paracrine modulation of adipose tissue inflammation and expandability. PLoS ONE. 2013 Jan;8(1):e53626. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053626

  • 43. Netea MG, Joosten LAB: The NLRP1-IL18 Connection: a stab in the back of obesity-induced inflammation. Cell Metab. 2016 Jan;23(1):6-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.12.014

  • 44. Reynolds CM, McGillicuddy FC, Harford KA, Finu-cane OM, Mills KHG, Roche HM. Dietary saturated fatty acids prime the NLRP3 inflammasome via TLR4 in dendritic cells - implications for diet-induced insulin resistance. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56: 1212–1222. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201200058

  • 45. Sun Q, Kiernan UA, Shi L, Phillips DA, Kahn BB, Hu FB, et al. Plasma Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Levels and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Analysis among Women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Circulation. 2013 Apr;113:1-24. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002073

  • 46. Ouchi N, Parker JL, Lugus JJ, Walsh K. Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nat. Rev Immunol. 2011 Feb;11(2):85. DOI: 10.1038/nri2921

  • 47. Moraes-Vieira PM, Yore MM, Dwyer PM, Syed I, Aryal P, Kahn BB. RPB4 Activates Antigen-Presenting Cells, Leading to Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Systemic Insulin Resistance, Cell Metab. 2014 March;19(3):512-526. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.01.018

  • 48. Tan HW, Liu X, Bi XP, Xing SS, Li L, Gong HP, et al. IL-18 overexpression promotes vascular inflammation and remodeling in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Atheroslerosis. 2010, 208:350–357. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.07.053

  • 49. Murphy AJ, Kraakman MJ, Kammoun HL, Dragoljevic D, Lee MK, Lawlor KE, et al. IL-18 Production from the NLRP1 Inflammasome Prevents Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. Cell Metab. 2016 Jan;23(1):155-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.09.024

  • 50. Xu X, Wang H, Wang Z, Xiao W. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promotes inflammatory process induced by cigarette smoke extraction or lipopolysaccharides in alveolar epithelial cells. Exp. Lung Res. 2009;35:795–805. DOI: 10.3109/01902140902912519

  • 51. Bruun JM, Helge JW, Richelsen B, Stallknecht B. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:961-7. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00506.2005

  • 52. Kishore P, Li W, Tonelli J, Lee DE, Koppaka S, Zhang K et al. Adipocyte-Derived Factors Potentiate Nutrient-Induced Production of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor–1 by Macrophages. Sci Trans Med. 2010 Febr;2(20):15-20.

  • 53. Oki K, Yamane K, Kamei N, Nojima H, Kohno N. Circulating visfatin level is correlated with inflammation, but not with insulin resistance. Clin Endocrinol. 2007;67:796–800. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02966.x

  • 54. Jurdana M, Petelin A, Cernelic Bizjak M, Bizjak M, Biolo G, Jenko-Praznikar Z. Increased serum visfatin levels in obesity and its association with anthropometric/biochemical parameters, physical inactivity and nutrition. eSPEN Journal. 2013 Apr;8(2):e59-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.clnme.2013.02.001

  • 55. Brown JEP, Onyango DJ, Ramanjaneya M, Conner AC, Patel ST. et al. Visfatin regulates insulin secretion, insulin receptor signalling and mRNA expression of diabetes-related genes in mouse pancreatic β-cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010 March;44:171-178. DOI: 10.1677/JME-09-0071

  • 56. Olszanecka-Gilinanowicz M, Kocelak P, Nylec M, Chudek J, Zahorska-Markiewicz B. Circulating visfatin level and visfatin/insulin ratio in obese women with metabolic syndrome. Arch Med Sci. 2012 May;8(2):214-218. DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2012.28547

  • 57. Singh M, Benencia F. Inflammatory signals from fat: Visfatin promotes pro-inflammatory activation and leukocyte interaction in endothelial cells. J Immunol. 2017 May;198, Suppl 1:24.

  • 58. Tabata M, Kadomatsu T, Fukuhara S, Miyata K, Ito Y, Endo M. Angiopoietin-like Protein 2 Promotes Chronic Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Obesity-Related Systemis Insulin Resistance. Cell Metab. 2009 Sept;10(3):178-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2009.08.003

  • 59. Hirasawa M, Takubo K, Osada H, Miyake S, Toda E, Endo M, et al. Angiopoietin-like protein 2 is a multistep regulator of inflammatory neovascularization in a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. J Biol Chem. 2016 Apr;291(14):7373-85. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.710186

  • 60. Nakamura K, Sano S, Fuster JJ, Kikuchi R, Shimizu I, Ohshima K, et al. Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 diminishes cardiac inflammation and protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb;291(6):2566-75. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.693937

  • 61. Ellabbana A, Abdelhakeemb M, Hamdya M, Fathya I. Impact of obesity on functional and laboratory parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Egypt Rheumatol Rehabil. 2016 Jan;43(1):21–26. DOI: 10.4103/1110-161X.177423

  • 62. Crowson CS, Matteson EL, Davis JM, Gabriel SE. Contribution of obesity to the rise in incidence of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2013 Jan;65(1):71–7. DOI: 10.1002/acr.21660

  • 63. Francin PJ, Abot A, Guillaume C, Moulin D, Bianchi A, Gegout-Pottie P, et al. Association between adiponectin and cartilage degradation in human osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Mar 31;22(3):519-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.002

  • 64. Koskinen A, Vuolteenaho K, Nieminen R, Moilanen T, Moilanen E. Leptin enhances MMP-l, MMP-3 and MMP-13 production in human osteoarthritic cartilage and correlates with MMP-1 and MMP-3 in synovial fluid from OA patients. Clin Expr Rheum-Incl Suppl. 2011 Jan 1;29(1):57.

  • 65. Perera PM, Wypasek E, Madhavan S, Rath-Deschner B, Liu J, Nam J, et al. Mechanical signals control SOX-9, VEGF, and c-Myc expression and cell proliferation during inflammation via integrin-linked kinase, B-Raf, and ERK1/2-dependent signaling in articular chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010 May 28;12(3):R106. DOI: 10.1186/ar3039

  • 66. Ungur R, Dronca M, Crăciun EC, Rusu RL, Văleanu M, Onac I, et al. Improvement of total antioxidant status, a possible bioeffect of the ultrasound therapy-a pilot study. Rev Rom Med Lab. 2011;19(2/4):177-183.

  • 67. Hui W, Litherland GJ, Elias MS, Kitson GI, Cawston TE, Rowan AD, et al. Leptin produced by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via up-regulation and activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012 Mar 1;71(3):455-62. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200372

  • 68. Kontny E, Zielinska A, Skalska U, Ksiezopolska-Orlowska K, Głuszko P, Maslinski W. Distinct secretory activity and clinical impact of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in women with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Inflammation. 2017 Feb;40(1):106-16. DOI: 10.1007/s10753-016-0459-3

  • 69. Courties A, Sellam J. Osteoarthritis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: What are the links? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Dec;122:198-206. DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2016.10.021

  • 70. Van Guilder GP, Hoetzer GL, Greiner JJ, Stauffer BL, DeSouza CA. Influence of metabolic syndrome on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese adults. Obesity. 2006;14:2127–2131. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2006.248

  • 71. Roberts CK, Hevener AL, Barnard RJ. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: underlying causes and modification by exercise training. Compr Physiol 2013 Jan;3(1):1-58. DOI: 10.1002/cphy.c110062

  • 72. Aquilante CL, Kosmiski LA, Knutsen SD, Zineh I. Relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults. Metabolism. 2008;57:494–501. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2007.11.010

  • 73. Leach NV, Dronca E, Vesa SC, Sampelean DP, Craciun EC, Lupsor M, et al. Serum homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Eur J Intern Med. 2014 Oct 31;25(8):762-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejim.2014.09.007

  • 74. Saieva C, Peluso M, Palli D, Cellai F, Ceroti M, Selvi V, et al. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of malondialdehyde DNA adducts in a representative sample of the Florence City population. Mutagenesis. 2016 Mar;31(4):475-80. DOI: 10.1093/mutage/gew012

  • 75. Monickaraj F, Gokulakrishnan K, Prabu P, Sathishkumar C, Anjana RM, Rajkumar JS, et al. Convergence of adipocyte hypertrophy, telomere shortening and hypoadiponectinemia in obese subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Biochem. 2012 Nov 30;45(16):1432-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2012.07.097

  • 76. Gikas A, Sotiropoulos A, Pastromas V, Papazafiropoulou A, Apostolou O, Pappas S. Seasonal variation in fasting glucose and HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes. Prim Care Diab. 2009 May 31;3(2):111-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcd.2009.05.004

  • 77. Csép K. Surrogate Measures of Insulin Resistance in Middle-aged Non-diabetic Subjects. AMM. 2013 Dec;59(6):279-84.

  • 78. McArdle MA, Finucane OM, Connaughton RM, Mc-Morrow AM, Roche HM. Mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance: insights into the emerging role of nutritional strategies. Front Endocrinol. 2013 May;4:52. DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00052

  • 79. Tonding SF., Silva FM., Antonio JP, Azevedo MJ, Canani LHS, Almeida JC. Adiposity markers and risk of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr J. 2014 Dec;13(1):124. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-13-124

  • 80. Rajendran K, Devarajan N, Ganesan M, Ragunathan M. Obesity, Inflammation and Acute Myocardial Infarction-Expression of leptin, IL-6 and high sensitivity-CRP in Chennai based population. J Thromb. 2012 Aug;10(1):13. DOI: 10.1186/1477-9560-10-13

  • 81. Kleinbongard P, Heusch G, Schulz R: TNFalpha in atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion and heart failure. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;127:295-314. DOI: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2010.05.002

  • 82. Kanda T, Takahashi T, Kudo S, Takeda T, Tsugawa H, et al. Leptin deficiency enhances myocardial necrosis and lethality in a murine model of viral myocarditis. Life Sci. 2004;75:1435-1447.. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2004.03.012

  • 83. McGaffin KR, Zou B, McTiernan CF, O’Donnell CP: Leptin attenuates cardiac apoptosis after chronic ischaemic injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:313-324. DOI: 10.1093/cvr/cvp071

  • 84. Liu Q, Yuan B, Lo KA, Patterson HC, Sun Y, Lodish HF. Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism. National Acad Sciences. 2012 Sep;109(36):14568-73. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1211611109

  • 85. Arita Y, Kihara S, Ouchi N, Takahashi M, Maeda K, et al. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem Biophys Rec Commun. 1999;257:79-83. DOI: 10.1006/bbrc.1999.0255

  • 86. Ai M, Otokozawa S, Asztalos BF, White CC, Cupples LA, Nakajima K, at al. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham offspring Study. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Aug;217(2):543-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.05.035

  • 87. Tao L, Gao E, Jiao X, Yuan Y, Li S, Christopher TA, et al. Adiponectin cardioprotection after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion involves the reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress. Circulation 2007;115:1408-1416. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.666941

  • 88. Bobbert T, Raila J, Schwarz F, Mai K, Henze A, Pfeiffer AF, Schweigert FJ, Spranger J. Relation between retinol, retinol-binding protein 4, transthyretin and carotid intima media thickness. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec;213(2):549-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.07.063

  • 89. Xiao Y, Xu A, Hui X, Zhou P, Li X, Zhong H, et al. Circulating lipocalin-2 and retinol-binding protein 4 are associated with intima-media thickness and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. PLoS One. 2013 Jun;8(6):e66607. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066607

  • 90. Horio E, Kadomatsu T, Miyata K, Arai Y, Hosokawa K, Doi Y, et al. Role of Endothelial Cell–Derived Angptl2 in Vascular Inflammation Leading to Endothelial Dys-function and Atherosclerosis Progression Arteriosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014 Apr;34:1-11. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.303116

  • 91. Lavie CJ, McAuley PA, Church TS, Milani RV, Blair SN. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness and severity in the obesity paradox. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Apr;63(14):1345-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.01.022

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search