Introduction: The infection with Clostridium difficile has increased in incidence worldwide and it raises many problems with regard to therapy, resistance to treatment and especially recurrence. Recurrence is frequent in patients treated for Clostridium difficile infection, requiring vancomycin by mouth, with limited alternatives. The literature shows that one of the most efficient treatment methods in Clostridium difficile infection is the transplantation of gut microbiota, also known as fecal microbiota transplantation. Aim: We present our results following FMT performed in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and propose a simple and effective protocol for fecal microbiota transplantation. Study design: The study was prospective. The phases of the FMT procedure: assessment of patient eligibility, patient’s consent, identification and screening of donors, discontinuation of antibiotics (vancomycin, metronidazole) 3 days prior to the procedure. Methods: Between 2013 and 2015, FMT was performed in 30 patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, by direct infusion of extensively processed donor fecal matter via colonoscopy. We followed up the patients for 12 months. Results: Immediate post-transplantation outcome in what concerns stool frequency during the follow-up period (7 days) was encouraging in 93.33% of patients. The donors were healthy individuals (53% 1st degree relatives), previously screened for possible infections and infestations. This result was sustained at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Post-transplantation recurrence occurred in 6.67% (2 patients), which responded well to treatment and did not require a new vancomycin course. Conclusions: Fecal microbiota transplantation via colonoscopy is effective, safe, easy to perform, it yields lasting results and is therefore a good option for recurrent or treatment-resistant Clostridium difficile infection.
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