Association of abnormal metopic suture causing hypertelorism, interfrontal encephalocele with craniofacial cosmetic deformity associated with myelomeningocele: management literature review

Open access


Myelomeningocele may be associated with other neural and extraneural anomalies. Authors present association of metopic suture abnormality, an interfrontal encephalocele with widening of metopic suture and abnormal shape frontal bones in the forehead in those associated with hydrocephalus. Authors describes two neonates with interfrontal encephalocele, representing first series reporting in neonate. Management and pertinent literature is briefly discussed.

1. Vu HL, Panchal J, Parker EE et-al. The timing of physiologic closure of the metopic suture: a review of 159 patients using reconstructed 3D CT scans of the craniofacial region. J Craniofac Surg. 2001;12 (6): 527-32.

2. Weinzweig J, Kirschner RE, Farley A et-al. Metopic synostosis: Defining the temporal sequence of normal suture fusion and differentiating it from synostosis on the basis of computed tomography images. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2003;112 (5): 1211-8.

3. Glass RB, Fernbach SK, Norton KI et-al. The infant skull: a vault of information. Radiographics. 2004;24 (2): 507-22.

4. Anegawa S, Hayash T, Torigoe R, Hashimoto T (1993) Myelomeningocele associated with cranium bifidum: rare coexistence of two major malformations. Child Nerv Sys 9:278-281

5. Gilbert JN, Jones KL, Rorke LB, Chernoff GF, James HE (1986) Central nervous system anomalies associated with meningomyelocele, hydrocephalus, and the Arnold- Chiari malformation: reappraisal of theories regarding the pathogenesis of posterior neural tube closure defects. Neurosurgery 18:559-564

6. Nayak PK, Mahapatra AK (2006) Frontal bone agenesis in a patient of spinal dysraphism. Pediatr Neurosurg 42:171-173

7. Nejat F, Kamali S, El Khashab M. Interfrontal encephalocele: a rare feature of forehead in hydrocephalic myelomeningocele patients. Clinical feature, probable mechanisms, and management. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013 Aug;29(8):1349-52.

8. Nicolaides KH, Campbell S, Gabbe SG, Guidetti R Ultrasound screening for spina bifida: cranial and cerebellar signs. Lancet 1986; 2:72-74

Romanian Neurosurgery

The Journal of Romanian Society of Neurosurgery

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 238 196 26
PDF Downloads 81 72 3