Predictors for outcome after surgery for traumatic acute subdural hematoma

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Abstract

Introduction: Acute traumatic subdural hematoma (ASDH) is one of the most frequent conditions in neurosurgery demanding emergency surgery. The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing outcome in patients who had surgery for evacuation of ASDH. Methods: From 2005 to 2012 eighty-five patients at age above 18 years had surgery for evacuation of ASDH. Outcome was measured according GOS at discharge and was dichotomized as “favorable outcome” (GOS 4 to 5) and “unfavorable outcome” (GOS 1 to 3). These factors were evaluated with univariate and logistic regression analysis for significance with outcome. Results: The mean age of the 85 patients was 62.7 years (SD±18.5). 45.9% patients were with favorable outcome and 54.1% had unfavorable outcome. Patients with GCS score 3-8 (54.1%) had 80.4% unfavorable outcome whereas 78.6% of patients with GCS score 13-15 (32.9%) had favorable outcome. All patients with nonreactive pupils (bilaterally or unilaterally - 31.8%) had unfavorable outcome whereas patients (36.5%) with both reactive pupils (36.5%) had in 80.6% favorable outcome. All patients (40%) with Rotterdam CT scores 5 and 6 had unfavorable outcome. The factors determining outcome were admission GSC score, Rotterdam CT scores, and prothrombin time. Conclusion: Patients who have GSC score of 3, unresponsive pupil(s) or have Rotterdam CT scores 5 and 6 have little chance of survival. Patients with coagulopathy have two times more unfavorable outcome. The patients with ASDH should have surgery as soon as possible after correction of vital parameters in order to avoid deterioration which can be very rapid and irreversible.

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