Cladophialophora bantiana brain abscess masquerading cerebral tuberculoma in an immunocompetent host

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Abstract

Phaeohyphomycosis is a term that collectively describes fungal infections caused by moulds and yeasts that have brown-pigmented cell walls (due to the presence of melanin). We report a case of 45 year female who had multiple coalescing lesions in the right basal ganglionic and thalamic region. Based on the imaging and investigation findings a diagnosis of cerebral tuberculoma was suspected. Histopathology of the excised specimen showed brown colored fungal hyphae surrounded by neutrophilic infiltrate. A diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana was made and accordingly antifungal treatment was started. Brain abscess caused by Cladophialophora bantiana in an immunocompetent host is relatively uncommon and usually associated with overall high mortality. The best outcomes have been reported in patients who receive both surgical excision of the abscess followed by systemic antifungal therapy. In view of its rarity of these lesions preoperative diagnosis is difficult particularly in an immunocompetent host and absence of other risk factors.

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