Electrical Resistivity Tomography for Sustainable Groundwater Development in a Complex Geological Area

Adedibu Sunny Akingboye 1 , Isaac Babatunde Osazuwa 1  and Muraina Zaid Mohammed 1
  • 1 Department of Earth Sciences, Akungba, Nigeria


Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used for delineating significant subsurface hydrogeological features for sustainable groundwater development in Etioro-Akoko area, Southwestern Nigeria. This study was necessitated by challenges posed on groundwater supplies from wells and boreholes in Etioro-Akoko and the neighbouring fast growing towns and villages. Field data were acquired over the area with ABEM Lund Resistivity Imaging System and were subsequently processed and inverted through RES2DINVx64 software. Results showed four distinct subsurface layers: topsoil, weathered layer, fractured bedrock and fresh bedrock (basal unit). Localised bedrock depressions occasioned by fracturing and deep weathering of less stable bedrock minerals were delineated with resistivity and thickness values ranging from 50 to 650 Ωm and 12 to ---gt--- 25 m, respectively. The localised depressions mirrored uneven bedrock topography and served as the preferential groundwater storage and hydrogeological zones in the area. The two hydrogeological zones significant for groundwater development included overburden-dependent aquifers and fractured dependent bedrock aquifers. It was, therefore, concluded that groundwater storage potential was depended on hydrogeological zones particularly at major localised bedrock depressions where fractures and groundwater recharges/discharges were evident. Wells and boreholes were proposed at bedrock depressions with thickness value not less than 12 and ---gt--- 25 m, respectively, for enhanced groundwater sustainability and quality assurance in the area.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Griffiths, D.H., Barker, R.D. (1993): Two-dimensional resistivity imaging and modeling in areas of complex geology. Journal of Applied Geophysics, 29, pp. 211–226.

  • [2] Barker, R., Moore, J. (1998): The application of time-lapse electrical tomography in groundwater studies. Leading Edge, 17, pp. 1454–1458.

  • [3] Osazuwa, I.B., Chii, E.C. (2010): Two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey around the periphery of an artificial lake in Precambrian Basement Complex of Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 5(3), pp. 238–245.

  • [4] Costall, A., Harris, B., Pigois, J.P. (2018): Electrical Resistivity Imaging and the Saline Water Interface in High-Quality Coastal Aquifers. Survey Geophysics, pp. 1–64. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-018-9468-0.

  • [5] Akingboye, A.S., Ogunyele, A.C. (2019): Insight into seismic refraction and electrical resistivity tomography techniques in subsurface investigations. The Mining-Geology-Petroleum Engineering Bulletin, 34(1), pp. 93–111. doi: 10.17794/rgn.2019.1.9.

  • [6] Aminu, M.B. (2015): Electrical Resistivity Imaging of a Thin Clayey Aquitard Developed on Basement Rocks in Parts of Adekunle Ajasin University Campus, Akungba-Akoko, South-western Nigeria. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 71(1), pp. 47–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.1.9016.

  • [7] Mohammed, M.Z., Ogunribido, T.H.T., Adedamola, T.F. (2012): Electrical Resistivity Sounding for Subsurface Delineation and Evaluation of Groundwater Potential of Araromi Akungba-Akoko. Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2(7), pp. 29–40.

  • [8] Okpoli, C., Saba, E.A. Oduneye, O.C. (2014): Geophysical Investigation of Groundwater Regime: Case Study of Etioro-Akoko, Southwestern Nigeria. Environmental Research, Engineering and Management, 69(3), pp. 29–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.5334.

  • [9] Abu-Hassanein, Z., Benson, C., Blotz, L. (1996). Electrical resistivity of compacted clays. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 122, pp. 397–406. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410.

  • [10] Hassan, A.A. (2014): Electrical Resistivity Method for Water Content Characterisation of Unsaturated Clay Soil. Durham Theses, Durham University. Available from: Durham e-theses online. http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/10806/.

  • [11] Merritt, A.J. (2014): 4D Geophysical Monitoring of Hydrogeology Precursors to Landslide Activation. PhD Thesis, School of Earth and Environmental, University of Leeds, UK. 1–276.

  • [12] Ojo, S.O. (2000): Factor productivity in maize production in Ondo state Nigeria. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 23, pp. 25–26.

  • [13] Rahaman, M.A. (1989): Review of the Basement Geology of South-Western Nigeria. In: Kogbe, C.A. (eds.). Geology of Nigeria (2nd eds.). Rockview Nige Limited, Jos., pp. 39–56.

  • [14] Obaje N.G. (2009): Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 221 p. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-92685-6.

  • [15] Zhou, B., Dahlin, T. (2003): Properties and effects of measurement errors on 2D resistivity imagine survey. Near surface geophysics, 1(3), 105–117.

  • [16] Dahlin, T., Zhou, B. (2004): A numerical comparison of 2D resistivity imaging using 10 electrode arrays. Geophysical Prospecting, 52, 379–398.

  • [17] deGroot-Hedlin, C., Constable, S.C. (1990): Occam’s inversion to generate smooth two-dimensional models from magnetotelluric data. Geophysics, 55, 1613–1624.

  • [18] Loke, M.H. (2004): Rapid 2D resistivity and IP inversion using the least-square method. Manual for RES2DINV, version 3.54. 53 p.


Journal + Issues