Geophysical investigation of banded iron ore mineralization at Ero, North – Central Nigeria

Open access


The banded iron ore mineralization at Ero was investigated using aeromagnetic, resistivity and induced polarization (IP) methods with the aim of characterizing the deposit. Analysis of the aeromagnetic data involved the application of reduced-to-equator transformation, derivative filters, analytic signal and source parameter imaging techniques. Computer modelling of some of the identified anomalies was undertaken. The electrical resistivity and IP methods helped in discriminating between the iron ore and the host rock. The results showed that the banded iron formations (BIFs) were characterized by spherical analytic signal anomalies ranging from 0.035 nT/m to 0.06 nT/m within the granite gneiss and magnetic susceptibility of 0.007-0.014 SI. The iron ore had low chargeability (0.1-5.0 msec) and resistivity (1.5 × 102 to 2.5 × 103 Ωm). Structural features trending in the NE-SW, E-W, and NW-SE were identified, suggesting that the area had undergone many episodes of tectonic events. Depth to the BIF varied from the surface up to about 200 m. The chargeability response of the iron bodies suggested an average grade of 20%-40%, making the prospect for economic exploitation attractive.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] The Encyclopedia Americana (1992): Grolier Inc. Vol. 15 pp 443-463.

  • [2] James H.L. (1954): Sedimentary facies of iron formations. Economic Geology 49 235-293.

  • [3] Amigun J. O. Afolabi O. Ako B. D. (2012): Application of airborne magnetic datato mineral exploration in the Okene Iron Ore Province of Nigeria. International Research Journal of Geology and Mining 2(6) pp 132-14.

  • [4] Anudu G.K. Onuba L. N. Onwuemesi A. G. Ikpokonte A. E. (2012): Analysis of aeromagnetic data over Wamba and its adjoining areas in north-central Nigeria. Earth Sciences Research Journal 16(1) pp 25-33.

  • [5] Jamil Baba Saidu Baba and Tersoo Aga (2012): Preliminary process mineralogy of Agbado - Okudu Iron ore deposit Kogi South-Western Nigeria. Research Journal in Engineering and Applied Sciences 1(4) pp 247-250.

  • [6] Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC 2010). Steel raw materials in Nigeria. ISBN: 978-2043-79-6.

  • [7] Gunn P.J. (1993). The Causes of Magnetic Responses in Massive Sulphide Ore Bodies and Their Horst Rocks

  • [8] Gunn P.J. and Dentith M.C. (1997): Magnetic Responses Associated with Mineral Deposits. AGSO Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics 17(2) pp 145-158.

  • [9] Stanley H.W. (1990): Resistivity and Induced polarization methods. SEG investigations in geophysics. Geotechnical and environmental geophysics. Vol 1. pp 147-189

  • [10] Saeed K.A. (2014): Application of Magnetometery Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization for Exploration of Polymetal Deposits A Case Study: Halab- Dandi Zanjan Iran. 2nd Intl’ Conference on Advances in Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics May 4-5 2014 Istanbul (Turkey).

  • [11] Wei Zhang Jian-Xin Liu Zhen-Wei Guo and Xiao- Zhong Tong (2010): Cole-Cole Model based on the Frequency - domain IP Method of Forward Modelling. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings Xi’an China March 22-26 2010. pp 383-386.

  • [12] Olade M.A. (1978): General features of a Precambrian iron deposit and its environment at Itakpe Ridge Okene Nigeria. Trans. Inst. Min. Metallurgy. Sect. B87 pp.81-89.

  • [13] Grant N.K. Hickman M.H. Burkholder F.R. Powell J.L. (1972): Kibaran Metamorphic belt in the Pan-African domain of West Africa. Nature (London) Phys. Sc. 238 pp. 90-91.

  • [14] Hockey R. D Sacchi R Graaff W.P.F Muotoh E.O.G. (1986): The geology of Lokoja - Auchi Area Explanation of 1:250000 Sheet 62. Geological Survey of Nigeria Bulletin No. 39. 71 p.

  • [15] Muecke A. Annor A. Neumann U. (1996): The Algoma Type Iron-Formations of the Nigerian Metavolcano - Sedimentary Schist Belts. MineraliumDeposita 31: 113-122.

  • [16] Leu L.K. (1981): Use of reduction-to-equator process for magnetic data interpretation: Presented at the 51st Ann. Internat. Mtg. Sot. Exnl. Geonhv: geophysics 47. 445 (abstract).

  • [17] Nabighian M.N Grauch J.S. Hansen R.O LaFehr T.R Li Y Peirce J.W Phillips J.D Ruder M.E. (2005): The historical development of the magnetic method in exploration Geophysics 70 No. 6 33-61

  • [18] Roest W.R. Verhoef J. Pilkington M. (1992): Magnetic interpretation using 3-D analytical Signal. Geophysics 57 116-125.

  • [19] MacLeod I. N. K. Jones T. F. Dai. (1993): 3-D analytic signal in the interpretation of total magnetic field data at low magnetic latitudes: Exploration Geophysics 24 pp. 679-688.

  • [20] Thurston J.B. Smith R.S. (1997): Automatic conversion of magnetic data to depth dip and susceptibility contrast using the SPI (TM) method: Geophysics 62 807-813.

  • [21] Phillips J.D. (1998). Processing and interpretation of aeromagnetic data for the Santa Cruz Basin Patahonia Mountains Area south-central Arizona. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-98.

  • [22] Loke M.H. (2001): Tutorial on 2-D and 3-D electrical imaging surveys. pp 1-129.

  • [23] DeGroot-Hedlin C. Constable S.C. (1990): Occam’s inversion to generate smooth dimensional models from magnetotelluric data. Geophysics 55 1613‑1624.

  • [24] Onyeagocha A.C. Ekwueme B.N. (1982). “The Pre-Pan-African Structural Features of North central Nigeria”. Niger. J. Min. Geol. 19(2) pp. 74-77.

  • [25] Ajakaiye D.E. Hall D.H. Miller T.W Verherjen P.J. T. Awad M.B. and Ojo S.B. (1986): Aeromagnetic anomalies and tectonic trends in and around the Benue Trough Nigeria. Nature 319 pp 582-584.

  • [26] Olasehinde P.I. Pal P.C. Annor A.E. (1990): Aeromagnetic anomalies and structural lineament in the Nigerian Basement Complex. Journal of African Earth Sciences 11 No. 3/4 351-355.

  • [27] Telford W.M. Geldart L.P. Sheriff R.E. Keys D.A. (1990): Applied Geophysics Cambridge University Press.

  • [28] Rosli S. Ahmad S.M Imran A. (2012): The Study of Iron Ore Prospect using 2 - D Resistivity and Induced Polarization (IP) Method. EDGE 17 pp 2981‑2988.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 497 247 8
PDF Downloads 361 230 20