Association of cognitive-emotional regulation strategies to depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients

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Aim. The present cross-sectional observational study aimed to investigate the relation between cognitive–emotional regulation strategies and depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes patients in the context of sociodemographic and clinical factors, of diabetes distress, perception of illness consequences and previous depression.

Method. Multiple logistic regression was performed on the responses of 354 adults with type 2 diabetes (58.5% women; mean ± SD age: 61.14 ± 8.5 years; diabetes duration: 9.7 ± 6.4 years; BMI: 30.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2). Depressive symptoms were present in 16.9% and diabetes distress in 45.5%. Participants completed questionnaires on depression (BDI-II), cognitive-emotional regulation strategies (CERQ), diabetes distress (DDS), illness perceived consequences (IPQ-R).

Results. Of the cognitive–emotional strategies, lower positive reappraisal of diabetes (OR:0.49;CI:0.34-0.70) and increased catastrophizing (OR:2.08; CI:1.47-2.91) were found to increase the likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms in the presence of higher diabetes distress (OR: 1.53; CI:1.07-2.19), increased negative perception of diabetes consequences (OR:2.02; CI:1.34-3.06) and the presence of previous depression (OR:4.18; CI:2.03-8.63).

Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on cognitive-emotional regulation strategies in type 2 diabetes and provides evidence for the beneficial influence of positive reappraisal and adverse effect of catastrophizing on depressive symptoms in the context of diabetes distress, perceived consequences of diabetes and previous history of depression.

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