Glucose Level Estimation in Diabetes Mellitus By Saliva: A Bloodless Revolution

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Background. Diabetes mellitus is a massive, growing, silent epidemic that has the potential to cripple health services in all parts of the world. Currently, a diagnosis of diabetes is achieved by evaluating plasma glucose levels. Saliva offers some distinctive advantages. Whole saliva can be collected non-invasively and by individuals with limited training. The present study was aimed to estimate and correlate the plasma and salivary glucose levels in diabetic and non diabetic subjects, with special reference to age.

Method. The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of diabetics with BGL>200mg/dl and Group 2 consisted of diabetics with BGL 130-200mg/dl based on their random plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of healthy population as controls with BGL <130 mg/dl. 2 ml of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random plasma glucose levels and unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose

Results. The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in group 1 and group 2 diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary glucose levels show a significant correlation with plasma glucose levels between study populations, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glucose level in diabetic patients.

Conclusion. The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up.

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