Pulmonary Tuberculosis Screening in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), increasing the risk of progression of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active TB threefold, threatening the TB control, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess active and latent TB infection frequency in patients with DM.

Material and methods: There were enrolled in this study 503 adult DM patients. Active TB screening was performed through anamnestic data, clinical examination and chest X-ray and latent TB infection screening was evaluated using the tuberculin skin tests (TST).

Results: A number of 63 (12.5%) patients had type 1 DM and 440 (87.5%) had type 2 DM. Personal history of TB was present in 21 (4.2%) subjects, 5 (8.1%) with type 1 DM and 16 (3.6%) with type 2 DM. The TST was positive in 258 (51.5%) patients and 54 (10.7%) presented cough for more than two weeks at the time of examination. The chest X-ray revealed suggestive lesions for active TB in 4 (1%) subjects and lesions of inactive TB in 90 (22.4%) subjects.

Conclusions: TB screening must receive proper attention in patients with DM, being essential for diagnosis in those with nonspecific symptoms.

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