New Insight into the Role of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Cardiometabolic Diseases

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Abstract

Humans spend almost one third of their life sleeping, thus sleep deprivation or poor sleep quality will have consequences upon the quality of life. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep disorder that represents a respiratory cessation for at least ten seconds, which appears repeatable during sleep and it is accompanied by decreased oxygen saturation. The diagnosis of OSA is possible by filling in the STOP, STOP BANG, BERLIN questionnaires and performing the polysomnography, an accessible and more accurate method but yet very expensive. The prevalence of OSA is continuously increasing, but because of the nonspecific symptoms, the percentage of un-diagnosed cases is further increased. Data from 11 epidemiological studies published between 1993 and 2014 indicated an OSA prevalence of 22% in men and 17% in women. It has been suggested that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between OSA and obesity, and numerous studies have shown association of OSA with insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications and atrial fibrillation.

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