Optimization of Aerobic Exercise Protocols in Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Trial

Open access


Background and Aims: diabetes mellitus one of the non-communicable disorders which is spreading globally irrespective of nation being developed or developing. The aim of this study was to optimize the exercise protocols and to find the efficacy of these protocols on glucose control, balance, gait and proprioception in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Material and Methods: 40 individuals with type 2 DM with age 35 to 60 were randomly allotted to four groups with 10 subjects in each. Cycle ergometer based aerobic exercises were given with duration of 20 or 30 minutes twice or thrice weekly for 6 weeks. Pre and post intervention was collected using Fullerton Advanced Balance scale for balance, spatiotemporal gait parameters for gait, Continuous passive motion for Proprioception and High Performance Liquid Chromatography in the laboratory.

Results: data was analysed using Design Expert software. Full factorial design was used to compare role of duration and frequency of exercise on each patient. The results showed significant effect of exercises on balance, gait, proprioception and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c).

Conclusion: Aerobic exercises if given for 30 minutes and thrice weekly can show a significant improvement in complications in Diabetics.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Awotidebe TO Ativie RN Oke KI et al. Relationships among exercise capacity dynamic balance and gait characteristics of Nigerian patients with type-2 diabetes: an indication for fall prevention. J Exerc Rehabil 12: 581-588 2016.

  • 2. Kaur J Singh SK Vij JS. Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation in the management of Diabetes Mellitus: A Review. Indian J Sci Res 6: 171-181 2015.

  • 3. Allet L Armand S Aminian K et al. Clinical factors associated with gait alterations in diabetic patients. Diabet Med 26: 1003-1009 2009.

  • 4. Wang C Cai L Qiao M Chen S Xu Y. The effect of exercise on balance function of patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nursing 5:1-4 2016.

  • 5. Yoosefinejad AK Haghighi FM. Evaluation of knee proprioception and kinesthesia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nigerian Journal of Medical Rehabilitation 17: 1-12 2014.

  • 6. Morais PK Campbell CS Scales MM et al. Acute resistance exercise is more effective than aerobic exercise for 24 h blood pressure control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 37: 112-117 2011.

  • 7. Madden KM. Evidence for the benefit of exercise therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 6: 233-239 2013.

  • 8. Yang Z Scott CA Mao C Tang J Farmer AJ. Resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise for type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med 44: 487-499 2014.

  • 9. Sigal RJ Kenny GP Boulé NG et al. Effects of aerobic training resistance training or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 147: 357-369 2007.

  • 10. Figueira FR Umpierre D Casali KR et al. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial. PLoS One 8(3): e57733 1-10 2013.

  • 11. Behboudi L Azarbayjani MA Aghaalinejad H Salavati M. Effects of aerobic exercise and whole body vibration on glycaemia control in type 2 diabetic males. Asian J Sports Med 2: 83-90 2011.

  • 12. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 37[Suppl 1]: 81-90 2014.

  • 13. Nathan DM Buse JB Davidson MB et al. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: A consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care 29: 1963-72 2006.

  • 14. Sigal RJ Kenny GP Wasserman DH Castaneda-Sceppa C White RD. Physical activity/exercise and type 2 diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 29: 1433-1438 2006.

  • 15. Colberg SR Sigal RJ Fernhall B et al. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care 33: 2692-2696 2010.

  • 16. Nayak S Maiya A Hande M. Influence of aerobic treadmill exercise on blood glucose homeostasis in noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Indian J Clin Biochem 20: 47-51 2005.

  • 17. Fogelholm GM Tikkanen OH Näveri HK Näveri LS Härkönen MH. Carbohydrate loading in practice: high muscle glycogen concentration is not certain. Br J Sports Med 25: 41–44 1991.

  • 18. Morrison S Colberg SR Parson HK Vinik AI. Exercise improves gait reaction time and postural stability in older adults with type 2 diabetes and neuropathy. J Diabetes Complications 28: 715-722 2014.

  • 19. Arcolin I Pisano F Delconte C et al. Intensive cycle ergometer training improves gait speed and endurance in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A comparison with treadmill training. Restor Neurol Neurosci 34: 125-138 2015.

  • 20. Tang A Sibley KM Thomas SG et al. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on aerobic capacity spatiotemporal gait parameters and functional capacity in subacute stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 23: 398-406 2009.

  • 21. Sage MD Almeida QJ. Symptom and gait changes after sensory attention focused exercise vs aerobic training in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 24: 1132-1138 2009.

  • 22. Yin C Hsueh YH Yeh CY Lo HC Lan YT. A virtual reality-cycling training system for lower limb balance improvement. Biomed Res Int 2016: 9276508 2016.

  • 23. Globas C Becker C Cerny J et al. Chronic stroke survivors benefit from high-intensity aerobic treadmill exercise: a randomized control trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 26: 85-95 2012.

  • 24. Adamo DE Alexander NB Brown SH. The influence of age and physical activity on upper limb proprioceptive ability. J Aging Phys Act 17: 272-293 2009.

  • 25. Gunendi Z Ozyemisci-Taskiran O Demirsoy N. The effect of 4-week aerobic exercise program on postural balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Rheumatol Int 28: 1217-1222 2008.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.19

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.128
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.229

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 465 126 8
PDF Downloads 258 93 3