Raw Camel Milk Properties on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Open access


Background and aims: Diabetes is one of the most frequent and serious chronic diseases in humans all over the world. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of camel milk on serum glucose and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced in Wistar albino rats by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (120 mg/kg BW once). Albino rats each weighing 180-230g were divided into 3 equal groups (n=10) as following: G1 - normal rats fed on normal diet, G2 - diabetic rats fed on normal diet, and G3 - diabetic rats were fed with raw camel milk. Fasting blood glucose was measured on days 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and 30 while lipid profile was assessed at day 30.

Results: After four weeks of feeding, data indicated a significant decrease (p<0.05) of mean blood glucose in G3 group (133.80±3.22 mg/dL) as compared with G2 diabetic rats (199.6± 7.33 mg/dL). Data also revealed significant lower levels (p<0.05) of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL and higher level of HDL cholesterol in diabetic rats treated with camel milk as compared with diabetic rats fed a normal diet.

Conclusion: Raw camel milk improved the glycemic and lipid profile in diabetic rats. These findings indicate that raw camel milk may have potential benefits in the treatment of diabetes. Future studies will be needed to establish its safety and mechanism of action.

1. Shankar RK, Srividya BY, Kiranmayi GVN. Pharmacological investigation of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of calotropis procera. Adv Biores 5: 30-37, 2014.

2. Ozougwu JC, Obimba KC, Belonwu CD, Unakalamba CB. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology 4: 46-57, 2013.

3. American Diabetes Association (ADA). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 36(Suppl 1): S67–S74, 2013.

4. Ozder A. Lipid profile abnormalities seen in T2DM patients in primary healthcare in Turkey: a cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis 13: 183, 2014.

5. Utzschneider KM, Kahn SE. The role of insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91: 4753–4761, 2006.

6. Shaaban M, Dawod AE, Nasr MA. Role of iron in diabetes mellitus and its complications. Menoufia Medical Journal 29: 11-16, 2016.

7. Murti K, Kaushik M, Kaushik A. Evaluation of hyypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of nyctanthes arbortristis linn against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 7: 8–11, 2012.

8. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 87: 4–14, 2010.

9. World Health Organization. The mysteries of type 2 diabetes in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 94: 241–242, 2016.

10. Obeten KE, Ubom KS, Charles CM. Some histological changes in the intestines of alloxan induced diabetic mellitus albino rats. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 4: 81-84, 2014.

11. Rohilla A. Shahjad A. Alloxan induced diabetes: mechanisms and effects. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences 3: 819-823, 2012.

12. Rodrigues R. A comprehensive review: The use of animal models in diabetes research. J Anal Pharm Res 3(5): 00071, 2016.

13. Singh MP, Pathak K. Animal models for biological screening of anti-diabetic drugs: An overview. Euro J Exp Bio 5: 37-48, 2015.

14. Ghosh T, Chakraborty T, Ganguly M. Model test for oral hypoglycemic activity of parthenium weed in albino mice. International Journal of Pharmacy and Engineering (IJPE) 2: 333-342, 2014.

15. Wanjari MM, Mishra S, Dey YN, Sharma D, Gaidhani SN, Jadhav AD. Antidiabetic activity of Chandraprabha vati – A classical Ayurvedic formulation. J Ayurveda Integr Med 7: 144–150, 2016.

16. Yoganandi J, Mehta BM, Wadhwani KN, Darji VB, Aparnathi KD. Evaluation and comparison of camel milk with cow milk and buffalo milk for gross composition. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 21: 259-265, 2014.

17. Cencic A, Chingwaru W. The role of functional foods, Nutraceuticals, and food supplements in intestinal health. Nutrients 2: 611–625, 2010.

18. Althnaian T, Albokhadaim I, El-Bahr SM. Biochemical and histopathological study in rats intoxicated with carbontetrachloride and treated with camel milk. Springerplus 2: 57, 2013.

19. Konuspayeva G, Faye B, Loiseau G. Variability of vitamin C content in camel milk from Kazakhstan. Journal of Camelid Science: 4: 63–69, 2011.

20. Elagamy EI, Ruppanner R, Ismail A, Champagne CP, Assaf R. Purification and characterization of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and immunoglobulins from camel’s milk. International Dairy Journal: 6: 129–145, 1996.

21. Yadav AK, Kumar R, Priyadarshini L, Singh J. Composition and medicinal properties of camel milk: A review. Asian J Dairy & Food Res 34: 83-91, 2015.

22. Agrawal RP, Budania S, Sharma P et al. Zero prevalence of diabetes in camel milk consuming Raica community of north-west Rajasthan, India. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 76: 290–296, 2007.

23. Agrawal RP, Beniwal R, Sharma S et al. Effect of raw camel milk in type 1 diabetic patients: 1 year randomised study. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 12: 27-35, 2005.

24. Shori AB. Camel milk as a potential therapy for controlling diabetes and its complications: A review of in vivo studies. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 23: 609–618, 2015.

25. Malik A, Al-Senaidy A, Skrzypczak-Jankun E, Jankun J. A study of the anti-diabetic agents of camel milk. Int J Mol Med 30: 585-592, 2012.

26. El Baky HHA, EL Rahman AAA, Mekawia EM, Ibrahema EA, Shalapy NM. The anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of peganum harmala seeds in diabetic rats. Der Pharmacia Lettre 8: 1-10, 2016.

27. Shah NA, Khan MR. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats Biomed Res Int 2014: 1-15, 2014.

28. Korish AA, Arafah MM. Camel milk ameliorates steatohepatitis, insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. BMC Complement Altern Med 13: 264, 2013.

29. Friedewald, WT, Levy RI Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18: 499-502, 1972.

30. Manal MEM Shehata, Eman AM. Evaluation of therapeutic efficiency of camel milk on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of American Science 10: 53-60, 2014.

31. Agrawal RP, Saran S, Sharma P, Gupta RP, Kochar DK, Sahani MS. Effect of camel milk on residual β-cell function in recent onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 77: 494–495, 2007.

32. El-Agamy EI. Bioactive components in camel milk. In: Bioactive components in milk and dairy products. Park YW (Ed), Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 173, 2009.

33. Abd El-Aziz AD, Ali KA, Ahmed AH, Mansour HZ, Mohamed MS. A Study on the effect of female camel (Camelus Dromedarius) milk on glycemic control of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. Journal of American Science 8: 459-465, 2012.

34. Badr G, Bashandy S, Ebaid H, Mohany M, Sayed D. Vitamin C supplementation reconstitutes polyfunctional T cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eur J Nutr 51: 623–633, 2012.

35. Sboui A, Khorchani T, Djegham M. Camel milk as adjuvant to treat alloxan diabetes: effect of heat treatment on this property. Journal of Diabetes Metabolism 3(4): 1-5, 2012.

36. Gomathi D, Ravikumar G, Kalaiselvi M, Devaki K, Uma C. Effect of Evolvulus alsinoides on lipid metabolism of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 3: 184–188, 2013.

37. Khan AA, Alzohairy MA, Mohieldein AH. Antidiabetic effects of camel milk in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 3: 151–158, 2013.

38. Al-Numair KS. Type II diabetic rats and the hypolipidemic effect of camel milk. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 8: 77-81, 2010.

39. Isa S, Ibrahim K, Abubakar I. Effect of camel milk’s supplementation on serum glucose levels, lipid profile and body weight of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Nig J Basic Appl Sci 21: 187-192, 2014.

40. Barakat LAA, Mahmoud RH. The antiatherogenic, renal protective and immunomodulatory effects of purslane, pumpkin and flax seeds on hypercholesterolemic rats. N Am J Med Sci 3: 411-417, 2011.

Romanian Journal of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases

The Journal of Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.11

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.122
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.077


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 271 271 28
PDF Downloads 152 152 13