Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Tuberculosis (TB) are two chronic diseases which have a major impact on the population health in developing countries. DM is a chronic, noncommunicable disease, characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by insulin-resistance, inadequate insulin secretion or both. TB is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an airborne bacteria. DM implies a three times greater risk of developing TB and their association can be considered one of the most important challenges regarding TB control. TB can cause a temporary impaired glucose tolerance, which is a risk factor for DM development. The possibility of relapse or death of a patient with TB is significantly higher when the patient also has DM. The DM-TB association represents an important threat to the population health and requires the implementation of adequate programs in order to reduce the prevalence and incidence of the two diseases.
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