Autumn Migration Dynamics, Body Mass, Fat Load and Stopover Behaviour of the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) at Manyas KuşcennetI National Park (NW Turkey)

Open access

Autumn Migration Dynamics, Body Mass, Fat Load and Stopover Behaviour of the Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) at Manyas KuşcennetI National Park (NW Turkey)

Turkey is located on one of the major migratory routes between Palearctic and Afrotropical regions. Despite its importance for many species, few studies exist on bird migration over Turkey. In this study, autumn migration dynamics and stopover behaviour of the Willow Warbler, a passage migrant in Turkey, was documented and analysed at Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park (NW Turkey). Birds were mist-netted, ringed, measured, weighed and fat scored from mid-August in 2002 and end of August in 2003 to end of October in both years. Totally, 543 and 929 Willow Warblers were ringed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. For 2002 and 2003 respectively, fat score values (mean ± SE) were 4.63 ± 0.06 and 3.84 ± 0.05, while body mass reached 11.38 ± 0.07 and 10.37 ± 0.05 g for birds captured for the first time. Fat scores in 2003 showed a bimodal distribution with peaks of T2 and T5, indicating populations or groups with different migratory strategies. The number of retraps constituted 9.2-12.1% of birds captured. In both years, minimum stopover length ranged from 1 to 15 or 16 days with a median of 5 days (averages 5.26 and 5.54, respectively). The majority of the retraps put on significant fat in both years. Retraps continued to put on weight for up to two weeks after they had arrived. In this second study documenting the Willow Warbler migration in Turkey, it was revealed that such wetlands as Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park provide crucial stopover habitat for possibly several populations of the species enabling them to gain necessary fat loads before crossing two major ecological barriers, the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Åkesson S. Hedenström A. 2007. How migrants get there: migratory performance and orientation.Bioscience 57 2: 123-133.

  • Alerstam T. 1990. Bird Migration. Cambridge Univ. Press Cambridge.

  • Alerstam T. 2001. Detours in Bird Migration.J. Theor. Biol. 209: 319-331.

  • Alerstam T. Hedenström A. 1998. The development of bird migration theory.J. Avian Biol. (Special issue on Optimal Migration. Eds: Alerstam T. Hedenström A.) 29: 343-369.

  • Bauchinger U. Wohlmann A. Biebach H. 2005. Flexible remodeling of organ size during spring migration of the Garden warbler (Sylvia borin).Zoology 108: 97-106.

  • Berthold P. 1993. Bird Migration: A general survey. Oxford Univ. Press Oxford.

  • Biebach H. 1990. Strategies of Trans-Sahara Migrants. In: Gwinner E. (Ed.). Bird migration. Springer Verlag Berlin-Heidelberg: pp. 352-367.

  • Bruderer B. Liechti F. 1999. Bird migration across the Mediterranean. In: Adams N.J. Slotow R.H. (Eds): Proc. 22. Int. Ornithol. Congr. Durban. Johannesburg: pp.1983-1999.

  • Busse P. 1970. Measurements of weight and fatness in migrating populations of birds.Not. Orn. 11 1: 1-15.

  • Busse 1972. Autum migration of the Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus (L.) along the Polish coast of the Baltic.Acta orn. 13 6.

  • Busse P. 1983. Biometrical standards in the Operation Baltic work.Ring 116: 125-138.

  • Busse P. 1984. Key to sexing and ageing of European Passerines. Beitr. Naturk. Niedersachsens 37.

  • Busse P. 2000. Bird Station Manual. SEEN University of Gdańsk Gdańsk.

  • Catry P. Encarnação V. Araújo A. Fearon P. Fearon A. Armelin M. Delaloye P. 2004. Are long-distance migrant passerines faithful to their stopover sites?J. Avian Biol. 35: 170-181.

  • Cramp S. (Ed.). 1992. Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. vol. 6. Oxford Univ. Press Oxford.

  • Hedenström A. Alerstam T. 1997. Optimum fuel loads in migratory birds: distinguishing between time and energy minimization.J. Theor. Biol. 189: 227-234.

  • Hedenström A. Pettersson J. 1987. Migration routes and wintering areas of Willow Warblers Phylloscopus trochilus (L.) ringed in Fennoscandia.Ornis Fenn. 64: 135-143.

  • Ilieva M. Zehtindjiev P. 2005. Migratory state: body mass and fat level of some passerine long-distance migrants during autumn migration in north-eastern Bulgaria.Ring 27 1: 61-67.

  • Kaiser A. 1993. A new multi-category classification of subcutaneous fat deposits of songbirds.J. Field Ornithol. 64 2: 246-255.

  • Karauz Er E.S. Özbek M. Altınayar G. Çakır F. Yıldırım F. 2007. [Monitoring research of waterbirds breeding at Manyas Kuşcenneti National Park (2002-2004).] Ministry of Environment and Forestry Ankara. (In Turkish).

  • Keşaplı Can Ö. Bilgin C.C. 2005. A study of passerine migration at METU (Ankara Central Turkey) based on the mist-netting method.Ring 27 2: 127-143.

  • Keşaplı Can Ö. Keşaplı Didrickson Ö. 2003. 2002 Yılı Halkalama Raporu. Kuş Araştırmaları Dernegi (KAD) Ankara.

  • Keşaplı Can Ö. Keşaplı Didrickson Ö. Özbahar I. 2004. 2003 Yılı Halkalama Raporu. Kuş Araştırmaları Dernegi (KAD) Ankara.

  • Lack D. 1968. Bird migration and natural selection.Oikos 19: 1-9.

  • Lindström Å. Hedenström A. Pettersson J. 1996. The autumn migration of Willow Warblers Phylloscopus trochilus in Sweden: results from a nation-wide co-operative project.Ornis Svecica 6: 145-172.

  • Moreau R.E. 1972. The Palaearctic-African Bird Migration Systems. Academic Press London.

  • Moreau R.E. 1961. Problems of Mediterranean-Sahara migration.Ibis 103a: 373-427 580-623.

  • Newton I. 2006. Can conditions experienced during migration limit the population levels of birds?J. Ornithol. 147: 146-166.

  • Niemeyer H. 1969. Statistische Untersuchungen zu Geschlechtsverhältnis und Zudordnung des Fitislaubsanger (Phylloscopus trochilus) auf Helgoland. Zool. Anz.183: 342-354.

  • Norman S.C. Norman W. 1986. Spring movements of Willow Warblers ringed in the British Isles.Ring. & Migr. 7: 75-84.

  • Norman S.C. Norman W. 1985. Autumn movements of Willow Warblers ringed in the British Isles.Ring. & Migr. 6: 7-18.

  • Piersma T. 1990. Pre-migratory "fattening" usually involves more than the deposition of fat alone.Ring. & Migr. 11: 113-115.

  • PODAB (Version 7.0) software created in and available from Bird Migration Research Station University of Gdańsk.

  • Porter R. 1983. The autumn migration of passerines and non-passerines at the Bosphorus Turkey.Sandgrouse 5: 45-74.

  • Rguibi-Idrissi H. Julliard R. Bairlein F. 2003. Variation in the stopover duration of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus in Morocco: effects of season age and site.Ibis 145: 650-656.

  • Schaub M. Jenni L. 2000. Body mass of six long-distance migrant passerine species along the autumn migration route.J. Ornithol. 141: 441-460.

  • Schaub M. Pradel R. Jenni L. Lebreton J.D. 2001. Migrating birds stop over longer than usually thought: an improved capture-recapture analysis.Ecology 82 3: 852-859.

  • Schaub M. Jenni L. 2001. Variation of fuelling rates among sites days and individuals in migrating passerine birds.Funct. Ecol. 15: 584-594.

  • Ścisłowska M. Busse P. 2005. Fat reserves and body mass in some passerines migrating in autumn through the southern Baltic coast.Ring 27 1: 3-31.

  • Sultana J. Gauci C. 1986. Retraps of four selected Warbler species during migration in the Maltese Islands.Orn. Mitt. 38: 3-4.

  • Svensson L. 1992. Identification Guide to European Passerines. Stockholm.

  • Tynjälä M. Ojanen M. Pakkala H. 1993. Spring migration of Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) at Tauvo bird observatory northern Finland.Ring 16 1-2: 64-69.

  • Yarar M. Magnin G. 1997. Important Bird Areas of Turkey. DHKD Istanbul.

  • Yosef R. Chernetsov N. 2005. Stopover ecology of migratory Sedge Warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) at Eilat Israel.Ostrich 75 1-2: 52-56.

  • Woodrey M.S. Moore F.R. 1997. Age-related differences in the stopover of fall landbird migrants on the coast of Alabama.Auk 114 4: 695-707.

  • Yong W. Finch D.M. Moore F.R. Kelly J.F. 1998. Stopover ecology and habitat use of migratory Wilson's Warblers.Auk 115 4: 829-842.

Journal information
Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 164 42 0
PDF Downloads 56 32 0