Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) method which is commonly used for geodetic applications has a great potential to be successfully harnessed for multiple civil engineering applications. One of the most promising uses of TLS in construction industry is remote sensing of saturation of building materials. A research programme was prepared in order to prove that harnessing TLS for such an application is viable. Results presented in the current paper are a part of a much larger research programme focused on harnessing TLS for remote sensing of saturation of building materials. The paper describes results of the tests conducted with an impulse scanner Leica C-10. Tests took place both indoors (in a stable lab conditions) and outdoors (in a real environment). There were scanned specimens of the most popular building materials in Europe. Tested specimens were dried and saturated (including capillary rising moisture). One of the tests was performed over a period of 95 hours. Basically, a concrete specimen was scanned during its setting and hardening. It was proven that absorption of a laser signal is influenced by setting and hardening of concrete. Outdoor tests were based on scanning real buildings with partially saturated facades. The saturation assessment was based on differences of values of intensity. The concept proved to be feasible and technically realistic.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Blaskow, R., & Schneider, D. (2014). Analysis and correction of the dependency between laser scanner intensity values and range. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XL-5, 2014.ISPRS Technical Commission V Symposium, 23 - 25 June, Riva del Garda, Italy, pp. 107-112, DOI:10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-107-2014.
Bucksch, A., Lindenbergh, R.C., & Van Ree, J. (2007). Error budget of terrestrial laserscanning : Influence of the intensity remission on the scan quality, III International Scientific Congress Geo-Siberia, 23-27 April, Novosibirsk, DOI:10.5194/isprsarchives-XL-5-107-2014.
Engström, T., & Johansson, M. (2009). The use of terrestrial laser scanning in archaeology Evaluation of a Swedish project, with two examples. Jurnal of Nordic Archaeological Science 16, pp. 3-13.
Kaasalainen, S., Jaakkola, A., Kaasalainen, M., Krooks, A., & Kukko A. (2011). Analysis of Incidence Angle and Distance Effects on Terrestrial Laser Scanner Intensity: Search for Correction Methods. Remote Sens. 3, pp. 2207-2221, DOI:10.3390/rs3102207.
Katzer, J., & Kobaka, J. (2007). Assessing the strength of gothic brickwork, Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, Vol.13, No 4, 2007, pp. 265-275.
Katzer, J., & Maliszewski, G. (2007). Water Induced Corrosion of Silica Lime Brick Masonry, Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2007, pp. 109-116.
Kukko, A., Kaasalainen, S., & Litkey P. (2008). Effect of incidence angle on laser scanner intensity and surface data. Applied Optics Vol. 47, Issue 7, pp. 986-992 DOI:10.1364/AO.47.000986.
Mill, T., Ellmann, A., Uueküla, U., & Joala V. (2011) Road surface surveying using terrestrial laser scanner and total station technologies. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, The 8th International Conference, May 19-20, Vilnius, Lithuania, ISSN 2029-7092 online, pp. 1142-1147.
Oreni, D., Brumana, R., Banfi, F., Bertola, L., Barazzetti, L., Cuca, B., Previtali, M., &
Roncoroni F. (2014). Beyond Crude 3D Models: From Point Clouds to Historical ;Building Information Modelling via NURBS, Digital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection, LNCS 8740, pp. 166-175, 10.1007/978-3-319-13695-0_16.
Park, H.S., Lee, H.M., Adeli, H., & Lee, I. (2007). New Approach for Health Monitoring of Structures: Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 22, pp. 19-30, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8667.2006.00466.x.
Pfeifer, N., Höfle, B., Briese, C., Rutzinger, M., & Haring, A. (2008). Analysis of the backscattered energy in terrestrial laser scanning data. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XXXVII. Part B5. Beijing. pp. 1045-1052 .
Sabatini, R., & Richardson, M. A., (2010). Airborne Laser Systems Testing and Analysis. RTO-AG-300-V26 NATO Research and Technology Organization, Vol. 26.
Sasidharan, S. (2016). A Normalization scheme for Terrestrial LiDAR Intensity Data by Range and Incidence Angle. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 6, Issue 5, May, pp. 322-328.
Suchocki, C. Application of Terrestrial Laser Scanner in Cliff Shores Monitoring. Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska 2009, Vol 11, pp. 715-725.
Suchocki, C., & Katzer, J., (2016). An example of harnessing Terrestrial Laser Scanner for remote sensing of saturation of chosen building materials. Construction and Building Materials, 122, pp. 400-405. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.06.091.
Suchocki, C. Wasilewski & A. Aksamitauskas C. (2008). Aplication of scanning technology in cliff shores monitoring. The 7th International Conference Environmental Engineering, Volume 3. May 22-23. Vilnius - Lithunia.
Szulwic, J., Tysiąc, P., &·Wojtowicz, A. (2016). Coastal Cliffs Monitoring and Prediction ;of Displacements Using Terrestial Laser Scanning. Chapter in book: 2016 Baltic Geodetic Congress (BGC Geomatics). June, pp.61-66, DOI: 10.1109/BGC.Geomatics.2016.20
Tan, K., & Cheng, X. (2016). Correction of incidence Angle and distance effect on TLS intensity data based on reference targets. Remote Sens, 8, 251, DOI:10.3390/rs8030251.
Tan, K., Cheng, X., Ju, Q., & Wu, S. (2016). Correction of Mobile TLS Intensity Data for Water Leakage Spots Detection in Metro Tunnels. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters PP(99), September. pp. 1711-1715 DOI: 10.1109/LGRS.2016.2605158.
Van Ree, J.M. 2006. Determination of the precision and reliability parameters of terrestrial laser scanners by creating a practical experiment set-up. Master thesis. 2006.
Voegtle, T., Schwab, I., & Landes, T. (2008). Influences of different materials on the measurements of a terrestrial laser scanner. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XXXVII. Part B5. Beijing. pp. 1061-1066.
Zaczek-Peplinska, J., Osińska-Skotak, K., & Gergont K. (2012). Możliwość wykorzystania zmian intensywności dobicia promienia laserowego do oceny stanu konstrukcji betonowej. Inżynieryjne zastosowania geodezji, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Poznańskiej.
Zygmunt, M., & Biłka, P. (2014). Analiza możliwości zastosowania naziemnego skaningu laserowego w kontroli i ocenie stanu technicznego budowli piętrzących wodę. Acta Sci. Pol., Formatio Circumiectus 13 (3). pp. 115-124 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15576/ASP.FC/2014.13.3.115.