Spatial and Temporal Diversification of the Income Affordability of Housing in Poland

Iwona Dittmann 1
  • 1 Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu,, Wrocław, Poland


The paper presents the results of research aimed at assessing the geographic diversification of the income affordability of flats on both the primary and secondary markets in Poland in the years 2012 - 2016. It analyzes the differences in the income affordability of flats: 1) in voivodeship cities, 2) between voivodeship cities, 3) between voivodeship capitals and other major cities located in counties in the voivodeship. Measures of differentiation and the Shapiro-Wilk, Fisher-Snedecor and t-Student tests were used. The source of the data used to conduct the study was the AMRON system. The results of the study indicate that: 1) changes in the income affordability of flats in voivodeship cities were small during the analyzed period, 2) the average diversification in voivodeship cities in terms of the income affordability of flats was small, however the differences in the extreme values of housing affordability indicators were high, 3) the maximum differences in the income affordability of flats between counties in the same voivodeship were high, 4) in a majority of voivodeships (11 out of 16), the income affordability of flats in a voivodeship city was lower (not always statistically significantly) than in the remaining counties of the voivodeship.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bogdon A. S., Can A., 1997, Indicators Of Local Housing Affordability: Comparative And Spatial Approaches, Real Estate Economics, 25(1), 43-60.

  • Bramley G., Karley N.K., 2005, How Much Extra Affordable Housing Is Needed In England?, Housing Studies, Vol. 20 No. 5, Pp. 685-715.

  • Bramley G., Karley N.K., Watkins D.S., 2006, Local Housing Need And Affordability Model For Scotland - Update (2005 Based), Communities Scotland, Edinburgh.

  • Chinowski B., Kruszka M., Mokrogulski M., 2013, Wpływ Otoczenia Rynkowego I Regulacyjnego Na Zdolność Gospodarstw Domowych Do Zakupu Mieszkań W Polsce (The Impact Of Market And Regulatory Environment On The Ability Of Households To Buy Flats In Poland), Urząd Komisji Nadzoru Finansowego, Warszawa.

  • Combs E. R., Combs B. A., Ziebarth A. C., 1994, Housing Affordability: A Comparison Of Measures, Consumer Interests Annual, 41, 188-194.

  • Dittmann I., 2012, Lokalne Rynki Mieszkaniowe W Polsce - Podobieństwo Pod Względem Zmian Cen Transakcyjnych Oraz Dostępności Mieszkań (The Local Residential Markets In Poland - Similarity In Terms Of Changes In Transaction Prices And Availability), Studia I Materiały Towarzystwa Naukowego Nieruchomości (Journal Of The Polish Real Estate Scientific Society), Vol. 20, No. 1, 2012, Pp. 71-89, Olsztyn.

  • Gan Q., Hill R.J., 2009, Measuring Housing Affordability: Looking Beyond The Median, Journal Of Housing Economics, Vol. 18, Pp. 115-25.

  • Hulchanski J. D., 1995, The Concept Of Housing Affordability: Six Contemporary Uses Of The Housing Expenditure-To-Income Ratio, Housing Studies, 10(4), 471-492.

  • Jewkes M., Delgadillo L., 2010, Weaknesses Of Housing Affordability Indices Used By Practitioners, Journal Of Financial Counseling And Planning, Vol. 21, No. 1.

  • Jones C., Watkins C., Watkins D., 2011, Measuring Local Affordability: Variations Between Housing Market Areas, International Journal Of Housing Markets And Analysis, Vol. 4 Issue: 4, Pp. 341-356, Https://Doi.Org/10.1108/17538271111172148.

  • Mccord M., Mcgreal S., Berry J., Haran M., Davis P., 2011, The Implications Of Mortgage Finance On Housing Market Affordability, International Journal Of Housing Markets And Analysis, Vol. 4 Issue: 4, Pp.394-417, Https://Doi.Org/10.1108/17538271111172175.

  • Padley M., Marshall L., 2016, Defining And Measuring Housing Affordability Using The Minimum Income Standard, And The Possibility Of A Living Rent. Presented At: Housing Studies Association (Hsa) Conference 2016, University Of York, York, Uk, 6th-8th April 2016.

  • Radzimski A., 2014, Subsidized Mortgage Loans And Housing Affordability In Poland, Geojournal, August 2014, Volume 79, Issue 4, Pp. 467-494, Https://Doi.Org/10.1007/S10708-014-9533-2.

  • Stone M. E., 2006, What Is Housing Affordability? The Case For The Residual Income Approach, Housing Policy Debate, 17(1), 151-184.

  • Stone M.E., Burke T., Ralston L., 2011, The Residual Income Approach To Housing Affordability: The Theory And The Practice, Available At: Http://Works.Bepress.Com/Michael_Stone/7.

  • Strączkowski Ł., Mazurczak A., 2015, Dostępność Mieszkań Na Poznańskim Lokalnym Rynku Mieszkaniowym (Affordability Of Housing On The Local Housing Market In Poznań), Biuletyn Rzeczoznawców Majątkowych Województwa Wielkopolskiego, 44, No. 2, 18-23.

  • Trojanek R., 2014, Dostępność Mieszkaniowa W Wybranych Miastach W Polsce W Latach 1997-2012 (Housing Availability In Selected Polish Cities In The Period 1997-2012), Biuletyn Rzeczoznawców Majątkowych Województwa Wielkopolskiego, Nr 1-2.

  • Trojanek R., 2013, Housing Affordability In Poland, International Journal Of Academic Research, Part B; 2013; 5(4), 183-187. Doi: 10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-4/B.27.

  • Whitehead C., Monk S., Clarke A., Holmans A., Markkanen S., 2009, Measuring Housing Affordability: A Review Of Data Sources, University Of Cambridge, Cambridge.

  • Wilcox S., 2006, The Geography Of Affordable And Unaffordable Housing: And The Ability Of Younger Working Households To Become Home Owners, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York.

  • Wilcox S., Bramley G., 2010, Evaluating Requirements For Market And Affordable Housing, National Housing And Planning Advice Unit, Titchfield.

  • Www.Amron.Pl [Dostęp Z Dnia 3.12.2017] [Accessed 3.12.2017].

  • 13th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2017. Rating Middle-Income Housing Affordability. Online: Http://Www.Aims.Ca/Wp-Content/Uploads/2017/01/2017_Jan_Aims_-Demographia_F1.Pdf.

  • 14th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2018. Rating Middle-Income Housing Affordability. Online: Http://Www.Demographia.Com/Dhi.Pdf <>.


Journal + Issues