Spaced learning and innovative teaching: school time, pedagogy of attention and learning awareness

Open access

Abstract

Currently, the ‘time’ variable has taken on the function of instructional and pedagogical innovation catalyst, after representing-over the years-a symbol of democratisation, learning opportunity and instruction quality, able to incorporate themes such as school dropout, personalisation and vocation into learning. Spaced Learning is a teaching methodology useful to quickly seize information in long-term memory based on a particular arrangement of the lesson time that comprises three input sessions and two intervals. Herein we refer to a teachers’ training initiative on Spaced Learning within the programme ‘DocentiInFormAzione’ in the EDOC@WORK3.0 Project in Apulia region in 2015. The training experience aimed at increasing teachers’ competencies in the Spaced Learning method implemented in a context of collaborative reflection and reciprocal enrichment. The intent of the article is to show how a process of rooting of the same culture of innovation, which opens to the discovery (or rediscovery) of effective teaching practices sustained by scientific evidences, can be successfully implemented and to understand how or whether this innovation- based on the particular organisation of instructional time-links learning awareness to learning outcomes.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Amenta G. (2013). Apprendimento. In G. Bertagna P. Triani (eds.). Dizionario di didattica. Brescia: La Scuola.

  • Baker D. P. Fabrega R. Galindo C. & Mishook J. (2004). Instructional time and national achievement: Crossnational evidence. Prospects 34(3) 311-334.

  • Bellingreri A. (2011). Pedagogia dell’attenzione. Brescia: La Scuola.

  • Bloom B. S. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. McGraw-Hill.

  • Caldwell J. H. Huitt W. G. & Graeber A. O. (1982). Time spent in learning: Implications from research. Elementary School Journal 82(5) 471-480.

  • Cicatelli S. (2013). Valutare gli alunni. Torino: Il capitello.

  • Clark D. & Linn M. C. (2003). Designing for knowledge integration: The impact of instructional time. The Journal of the Learning Sciences 12(4) 451-493.

  • Claessens B. J. Van Eerde W. Rutte C. G. & Roe R. A. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel review 36(2) 255-276.

  • Coates D. (2003). Education production functions using instructional time as an input. Education Economics 11(3) 273-292.

  • Coggi C. Ricchiardi P. (2005). Progettare la ricerca empirica in educazione. Roma: Carocci.

  • Connor C. M. Son S. H. Hindman A. H. & Morrison F. J. (2005). Teacher qualifications classroom practices family characteristics and preschool experience: Complex effects on first graders' vocabulary and early reading outcomes. Journal of School Psychology 43(4) 343-375.

  • Duncheon J. C. & Tierney W. G. (2013). Changing Conceptions of Time: Implications for Educational Research and Practice. Review of Educational Research 83(2) 236-272.

  • Endelman G. M. (1992). Sulla material della mente. Tr. It. Adelphi Milano 1993.

  • Fields RD. (2005). Making memories stick. Scientific American 292(2) 75-81.

  • Fuller B. & Clarke P. (1994). Raising school effects while ignoring culture? Local conditions and the influence of classroom tools rules and pedagogy.Review of educational research 64(1) 119-157.

  • Garzia M. Mangione G.R. Pettenati M.C. & Palmizio Errico R. (2015) Il tempo nella didattica. Il percorso “DocentiInFormazione”. In M. Rui L. Messina T. Minerva (a cura di) Teach Different! Proceedings della Multiconferenza Ememitalia2015 (pp.477-480).

  • Gattico E. & Mantovani S. (1998). La ricerca sul campo in educazione (Vol. 2). Pearson Italia Spa.

  • Gettinger M. (1984). Achievement as a function of time spent in learning and time needed for learning. American Educational Research Journal 21(3) 617-628.

  • Hochstein S. & Ahissar M. (2002). View from the top: Hierarchies and reverse hierarchies in the visual system. Neuron 36(5) 791-804.

  • Kelley P. (2008). Making Minds. New York: Routledge.

  • Kelley P. Whatson T. (2013). Making long-term memories in minutes: a spaced learning pattern from memory research in education. Frontiers in human neuroscience 7(589) 1-9.

  • La Marca A. (2014). The development of a questionnaire on metacognition for students in secondary school. In Proceedings of EDULEARN14 Conference 7th-9th July 2014 (pp. 676-691). Barcelona: IATED.

  • La Marca A. (2015). Learning Self-Regulation Processes and Guidance Didactics. Pedagogia Oggi 1 115-137.

  • Lasley T. J. Walker R. (1986). Time-on-task: How teachers can use class time more effectively. NASSP Bulletin 70(490) 59-64.

  • Leonard L. J. (1999). Towards Maximizing Instructional Time: The Nature and Extent of Externally-Imposed Classroom Interruptions. Journal of School Leadership 9(5) 454-74.

  • Leonard L. J. (2009). Optimising by minimising: interruptions and the erosion of teaching time. The Journal of Educational Enquiry 4(2) 15-29.

  • Mangione G.R. Garzia M. & Pettenati MC. (2016). Time and Innovation at school. The efficacy of Spaced Learning in classroom. In M. Carmo (a cura di) Education Applications & Developments II WIARS: Portugal. ISSN 2183 2978 (Chapter 36 in press).

  • Mangione G.R. Garzia M. De Simone G. & Longo L. (2016). Innovazioni didattiche e ricadute sugli apprendimenti. In R. Pace G.R. Mangione e P. Limone (a cura di) La relazione tra la dimensione didattica tecnologica e organizzativa: la costruzione del processo di innovazione a scuola (in press) Milano: Franco Angeli (in press).

  • Miles K. H. (2000). Rethinking school resources. Arlington Va.: New American Schools.

  • Millot B. & Lane J. (2002). The efficient use of time in education. Education economics 10(2) 209-228.

  • Patall E. A. Cooper H. & Allen A. B. (2010). Extending the school day or school year a systematic review of research (1985-2009). Review of educational research 80(3) 401-436.

  • Rivoltella P. C. (2012). Neurodidattica. Insegnare al cervello che apprende. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

  • Scheerens J. Hendriks M. (2014). State of the art of time effectiveness. In Effectiveness of time investments in education (pp. 7-29). Springer International Publishing.

  • Schraw G. Dennison R.S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology 19(4) 460-475.

  • Scrinber S. (1997). Mind and Social Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Semeraro R. (2014). L’analisi qualitativa dei dati di ricerca in educazione. Italian Journal Of Educational Research (7) 97-106.

  • Silva E. (2007). On the clock: Rethinking the way schools use time. Washington DC: Education Sector.

  • Sørenson A. B. Hallinan M. T. (1977). A reconceptualization of school effects. Sociology of education 50(4) 273-289.

  • Smith B. (2000). Quantity matters: Annual instructional time in an urban school system. Educational Administration Quarterly 36 652-682.

  • Trinchero R. (2004). I metodi della ricerca educativa. Roma-Bari: Laterza.

  • Vanhulle S. Merhan F. & Ronveaux C. (2007). Introduction. Du principe d'alternance aux alternances en formation des adultes et des enseignants: un état de la question. Raisons éducatives 7-45.

  • Walberg H. J. Niemiec R. P. & Frederick W. C. (1994). Productive curriculum time. Peabody Journal of Education 69(3) 86-100.

  • Walberg H. J. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and learning. Educational leadership 45(6) 76-85.

  • Wang M. C. (1984). Time use and the provision of adaptive instruction. Time and school learning 167-203.

  • Yair G. (2000). Not just about time: Instructional practices and productive time in school. Educational administration quarterly 36(4) 485-512.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 722 358 25
PDF Downloads 399 244 29