How to create meaningful learning experiences in an online environment: components from coding student reflections

Open access

Abstract

This paper examines the learning experiences using student reflections. Data collection was carried out by prompting undergraduate students to reflect on their worst and best experiences, accomplishments, and what they learned through online collaborative activities. The theoretical framework used to explore these experiences was the Community of Inquiry model, which claims the optimal learning experience is at the intersection of three presences (Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, 2000). How can we use these student perceptions of their experiences to create optimal learning experiences in an online environment? Specific teacher characteristics, sense of community, learner effort, sense of improvement and progress, student expectations of online classes, and the impact of feelings and emotion on other presences are some of the themes that surfaced through content qualitative analysis in this study. Students also responded to a validated survey (explicitly prompting the CoI presences) which revealed the impact of lack of student interest in course topics. These themes are valuable because they reveal significant components of students’ learning experiences which can be used to recreate optimal experiences in other settings. This paper builds on the theoretical framework by adding the student perspective and offering a codebook for qualitative content analysis of reflections.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Akyol Z. & Garrison R. (2008). The development of a community of inquiry over time in an online course: Understanding the progression and integration of social cognitive and teaching presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 12(3-4) 3-22. Retrieved from http://olj.onlinelearningconsortium.org/index.php/jaln

  • Akyol Z. & Garrison D. R. (2014). The development of a community of inquiry over time in an online course: understanding the progression and integration of social cognitive and teaching presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 12(2-3) 3-23.

  • Anderson T. Rourke L. Garrison D. R. & Archer W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 5(2) 1-17.

  • Arbaugh J. B. Cleveland-Innes M. Diaz S. R. Garrison D. R. Ice P. Richardson J. C. & Swan K. P. (2008). Developing a community of inquiry instrument: testing a measure of the community of inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample. The Internet and Higher Education11(3) 133-136.

  • Cho J. Y. & Lee E. H. (2014). Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences. The Qualitative Report19(32) 1-20.

  • Cleveland-Innes M. & Campbell P. (2012). Emotional presence learning and the online learning environment. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 13(4) 269-292.

  • Elo S. & Kyngäs H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of advanced nursing62(1) 107-115.

  • Garrison D. R. (2003). Cognitive presence for effective asynchronous online learning: The role of reflective inquiry self-direction and metacognition. Elements of quality online education: Practice and direction4(1) 47-58.

  • Garrison D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: social cognitive and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 11(1) 61−72 Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ842688.pdf

  • Garrison D. R. (2015). Thinking collaboratively: Learning in a community of inquiry. Routledge.

  • Garrison D.R. Anderson T. & Archer W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education 2(2-3) 87-105.

  • Garrison D. R. Anderson T. Archer W. (2001). Critical thinking cognitive presence and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education15(1).

  • Garrison D. R. & Arbaugh J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review issues and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education10(3) 157-172.

  • HossainMardi F. (2016). Exploring the Interactions of Social Cognitive and Teaching Presences in Student Learning Experiences in an Online Undergraduate Course (Doctoral dissertation University of Missouri-Saint Louis).

  • Johnson L. Levine A. Smith R. and Smythe T. (2009). The 2009 Horizon Report: K-12 Edition. Austin Texas: The New Media Consortium. Retrieved from http://www.nmc.org/pdf/2009-Horizon-Report-K12.pdf

  • Kozan K. & Richardson J. C. (2014). New exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis insights into the community of inquiry survey. The Internet and Higher Education23 39-47.

  • Lowenthal P. R. (2010). Social presence. In Social computing: Concepts methodologies tools and applications (pp. 129-136). IGI Global.

  • Merriam S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: a guide to design and implementation. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Prensky M. R. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Corwin Press.

  • Rienties B. & Rivers B. A. (2014). Measuring and understanding learner emotions: Evidence and prospects. Learning Analytics Community Exchange. Retrieved from http://www.laceproject.eu/publications/learning-analytics-and-emotions.pdf

  • Rovai A. P. (2002). Sense of community perceived cognitive learning and persistence in asynchronous learning networks. The Internet and Higher Education 5(4) 319-332.

  • Sauro Jeff (2011 April). Survey items should include a neutral response: agree disagree undecided?. MeasuringU. Retrieved from http://www.measuringu.com/blog/neutral-option.php

  • Shea P. & Bidjerano T. (2008). Measures of quality in online education: An investigation of the community of inquiry model and the net generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research39(4) 339-361.

  • Shea P. & Bidjerano T. (2010). Learning presence: Towards a theory of self-efficacy self-regulation and the development of a communities of inquiry in online and blended learning environments. Computers & Education55(4) 1721-1731.

  • Shea P. Hayes S. Smith S. U. Vickers J. Bidjerano T. Pickett A.... & Jian S. (2012). Learning presence: Additional research on a new conceptual element within the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. The Internet and Higher Education15(2) 89-95.

  • Sun Y. (2014). Exploring the Functioning of an Informal Online English Learning Community for GRE Preparation in China (Doctoral dissertation Ohio University).

  • Swan K. Shea P. Richardson J. Ice P. Garrison D. R. Cleveland-Innes M. & Arbaugh J. B. (2008). Validating a measurement tool of presence in online communities of inquiry. E-mentor2(24) 1-12.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 76 76 39
PDF Downloads 72 72 44