Translating Conceptual Metaphor: The Processes of Managing Interlingual Asymmetry

Open access

Abstract

Encountered at all levels of language, conceptual asymmetries between source and target languages present translators with fundamental challenges that require problem awareness, problem identification and problem solving. A case in point is conceptual metaphor in translation. Versions of conceptual metaphor theory have been applied in various productoriented studies of how translators deal with the challenge of metaphor in translation. However, there is potential in combining product-oriented approaches with techniques used to access translators’ cognitive processes, although process-oriented studies on how conceptual metaphor is re-conceptualised or re-mapped in translation are still rare. Building on an exploratory study carried out at our institute, in which findings from translation process data suggest that experience and/or training appears to be a main factor in handling conceptual metaphor, we present some salient features of re-mapping metaphor. Triangulating data from target-text products, keystroke logs and retrospective verbal commentaries collected under very similar conditions in a laboratory setting, we analyse how translators at different levels of experience handle two complex conceptual metaphors. The results appear to suggest that complex metaphor might indeed be culturespecific. They also potentially indicate that re-mapping practices are a function of experience and that re-mapping to a source-language target domain could create more uncertainty than generic-level re-mapping. Both findings hold pedagogical implications, which are discussed together with some methodological issues.

Alves, Fabio, Adriana Pagano and Igor da Silva. 2014. Effortful Text Production in Translation: A Study of Grammatical (De)Metaphorization Drawing on Product and Process Data. Translation and Interpreting Studies 9 (1). 25-51.

Alves, Fabio and Daniel Vale. 2009. Probing the Unit of Translation in Time: Aspects of the Design and Development of a Web Application for Storing, Annotating, and Querying Translation Process Data. Across Languages and Cultures 10 (2). 251-273.

Angelone, Erik. 2010. Uncertainty, Uncertainty Management and Metacognitive Problem Solving in the translation Task. In Gregory M. Shreve and Erik Angelone (eds.), Translation and Cognition, 17-40. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Bayer-Hohenwarter, Gerrit. 2009. Comparing Translational Creativity Scores of Students and Professionals: Flexible Problem-solving and/or Fluent Routine Behaviour? In Susanne Gopferich, Arnt L. Jakobsen and Inger M. Mees (eds.), Behind the mind: Methods, Models and Results in Translation Process Research, 83-112. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press.

Dagut, Menachem. 1976. Can ‘Metaphor’ be Translated? Babel 22 (1). 21-33.

Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner. 2002. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind’s Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.

Gibbs, Raymond W. 1999. Researching Metaphor. In Lynn Cameron and Graham Low (eds.), Researching and Applying Metaphor, 29-47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Glucksberg, Sam and Boaz Keysar. 1993. How Metaphors Work. In Andrew Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought. 2nd edn., 401-424. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Göpferich, Susanne. 2003. Metapher und Translation: Zur Universalitat bzw. Kulturgebundenheit der Metapher und der Modellierung des Metaphernubersetzungsprozesses. In Britta Nord and Peter A. Schmitt (eds.), Traducta Navis. Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Christiane Nord, 31-52. Tubingen: Stauffenburg.

Kövecses, Zoltan. 2011. Recent Developments in Metaphor Theory: Are the New Views Rival Ones? Review of Cognitive Linguistics 9 (1). 11-25.

Kumpulainen, Minna. 2015. On the Operationalisation of ‘Pauses’ in Translation Process Research. Translation and Interpreting 7 (1). 47-58.

Lakoff, George. 1993. The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In Andrew Ortony (ed.), Metaphor and Thought. 2nd edition, 202-251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, George. 2014. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry: Metaphorical Thought in Everyday Reason. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8. Article 958. Available from: http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00958/full

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. 1980/2003. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Leijten, Marielle and Luuk Van Waes. 2006. Inputlog: New Perspectives on the Logging of Online Writing Processes in a Windows Environment. In Kirk P. H. Sullivan and Eva Lindgren (eds.), Computer Key-Stroke Logging and Writing: Methods and Applications, 73-94. Oxford: Elsevier.

Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, Barbara. 2010. Re-conceptualization and the Emergence of Discourse Meaning as a Theory of Translation. In Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and Marcel Thelen (eds.), Meaning in Translation, 105-147. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Manfredi, Marina. 2014. Translating Lexical and Grammatical Metaphor in Popular Science Magazines: The Case of National Geographic (Italia). In Donna R. Miller and Enrico Monti (eds.), Tradurre Figure/Translating Figurative Language, 151-165. Bologna: Bononia University Press.

Massey, Gary. 2016. Remapping Meaning: Exploring the Products and Processes of Translating Conceptual Metaphor. In Łukasz Bogucki, Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, and Marcel Thelen (eds.), Translation and Meaning, Vol. 2 (1), 67-83. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Muñoz Martin, Ricardo. 2013. More Than a Way With Words: The Interface Between Cognitive Iinguistics and Cognitive Translatology. In Ana Rojo and Iraide Ibarretxe Antunano (eds.), Cognitive Linguistics and Translation, 75-94. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Newmark, Peter. 1981. Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Nicaise, Laurent. 2011. On Going Beyond The Literal: Translating Metaphorical Conceptualizations In Financial Discourse. Meta 56 (2). 407-423.

PACTE 2005. Investigating Translation Competence: Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Meta 50 (2). 609-619.

PACTE 2009. Results of the Validation of the PACTE Translation Competence Model: Acceptability and Decision Making. Across Languages and Cultures 10 (2). 207-230.

Risku, Hanna. 2002. Situatedness in Translation Studies. Cognitive Systems Research 3 (3). 523-533.

Rydning, Antin Fougner and Christian Lachaud. 2011. Are Primary Conceptual Metaphors Easier to Understand than Complex Conceptual Metaphors? An Investigation of the Cognitive Processes in Metaphor Comprehension. In Cecilia Alvstad, Adelina Hild and Elisabet Tiselius (eds.), Methods and Strategies of Process Research: Integrative Approaches in Translation Studies, 169-186. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Samaniego Fernandez, Eva. 2011. Translation Studies and the Cognitive Theory of Metaphor. Review of Cognitive Linguistics 9 (1). 262-279.

Schäffner, Christina. 2004. Metaphor and Translation: Some Implications of a Cognitive Approach. Journal of Pragmatics 36. 1253-1269.

Schäffner, Christina. 2005. A Roof is an Umbrella: Metaphor, Culture and Translation. In Maria Sidiropoulou (ed.), Identity and Difference - Translation Shaping Culture, 49-78. Bern: Peter Lang.

Schäffner, Christina. 2012. Finding Space Under the Umbrella: The Euro Crisis, Metaphors, and Translation. The Journal of Specialised Translation 17. 250-270.

Schäffner, Christina and Mark Shuttleworth. 2013. Metaphor in Translation. Possibilities for Process Research. Target 25 (1). 93-106.

Shuttleworth, Mark. 2011. Translational Behaviour at the Frontiers of Scientific Knowledge: A Multilingual Investigation Into Popular Science Metaphor in Translation. The Translator 17 (2). 301-323.

Shuttleworth, Mark. 2014. Translation Studies and Metaphor Studies: Possible Paths of Interaction Between Two Well-Established Disciplines. In Donna R. Miller and Enrico Monti (eds.), Tradurre Figure/Translating Figurative Language, 53-65. Bologna: Bononia University Press.

Sjøorup, Annette C. 2013. Cognitive Effort in Metaphor Translation. An Eye-tracking and Keylogging Study. Doctoral dissertation. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School.

Tirkkonen-Condit, Sonja. 2002. Metaphoric Expressions in Translation Processes. Across Languages and Cultures 3 (1). 101-116.

Toury, Gideon. 1995. Descriptive Translation Studies - and Beyond. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

van den Broeck, Raymond. 1981. The Limits of Translatability Exemplified by Metaphor Translation. Poetics Today 2 (4). 73-87.

Research in Language

The Journal of University of Lodz

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 0.16

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.154
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.229

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 519 519 52
PDF Downloads 366 366 46