Mediastinitis and bilateral pleural empyema caused by an odontogenic infection
Background. Although odontogenic infections are relatively frequent in the general population, intrathoracic dissemination is a rare complication. Acute purulent mediastinitis, known as descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM), causes high mortality rate, even up to 40%, despite high efficacy of antibiotic therapy and surgical interventions. In rare cases, unilateral or bilateral pleural empyema develops as a complication of DNM.
Case report. This case report presents the treatment of a young, previously healthy patient with mediastinitis and bilateral pleural empyema caused by an odontogenic infection. After a neck and pharynx re-incision, and as CT confirmed propagation of the abscess to the thorax, thoracotomy was performed followed by CT-controlled thoracic drainage with continued antibiotic therapy. The patient was cured, although the recognition of these complications was relatively delayed.
Conclusions. Early diagnosis of DNM can save the patient, so if this severe complication is suspected, thoracic CT should be performed.
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