The numerous plastic approaches of form in the 20th century are characterized by creativity and innovation. Form, as expression of an artistic language, is the cause and effect for the cultural evolution of a particular spatial-temporal area. The invention of forms depending on the factors which will impose them in a particular socio-cultural context and location environment is not everything. The challenges of the act of creation are far more complex. For the art of the 20th century, the role of the type of expression in visual or gestural language proved much more convincing and meaningful as to the data or phenomena occurring in immediate reality. The personality of the artist, his cultural character, his media coverage and exterior influences of his inner world, his preceding experiences and receiver’s contacts in a specific area are the factors that influence the relation between the work of art and the audience against a particular spatial-temporal background. The psychological and sensory processes in works of plastic art are spatially configured in structures, which leads to self-confession. The artist filters the information and the elements of exterior reality through the vision of his imagination and power of expression specific to his inner self, and turns them into values through the involvement of his state of mind. Constantin Brâncuşi is the sculptor whose role was considered exponential as he revolutionized modern artistic vision by integrating and creating space-form relations through symbol. Throughout his complex work - the Group of Monumental Sculptures of Tg. Jiu, the artist renewed the language of the sculpture-specific means of expression, though archaic forms, by restoring traditional art. Archetypes often make reference to the initial and ideal form and they represent the primitive and native models composing it. Form attracts, polarizes and integrates the energy of the matter outside the human body, and art acquires a unifying function for the senses of our spirit. We identify the forms developed by the junction between fantastic forms, the figments of the imagination of artists who communicate deep human meanings. They invite us in a world of constructive forms and mysteries, truly innovative and elaborate creations, by underlying different directions in the compositional space with symbolic value.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Ailincăi, C. (2000). Gramatica formelor vizuale [Grammar of Visual Arts].
București: PARALELA 45.
2. Ailincăi, C. (2010). Introducere în gramatica limbajului visual [Introduction to the Grammar of Visual Language]. Iași: Polirom.
3. Aslan, C. (2006). Paradigme ale artei şi frumosului, O perspectivă istorică şi sistematică [Paradigms of Art and Beauty, a Historical and Systematic Perspective] București.
4. Chevalier, J. Gheerbrant, A. (2009). Dicţionar de simboluri - mituri, vise, obiceiuri, gesturi, forme, figuri, culori, numere [Dictionary of Symbols - Myths, Dreams, Customs, Gestures, Forms, Figures, Colors, Numbers]. Iași: Polirom.
5. Constantin, P. (1977). Mică enciclopedie de arhitectură, arte decorative şi aplicate modern [Small Encyclopedia of Architecture, Modern Decorative and Applied Arts]. București: Editura Științifică și Enciclopedică.
6. Covătaru, D. (2005). Simbol şi obiect în sculptură [Symbol and Object in Sculpture]. Iași: Artes
7. Evseev, I. (1994). Dicţionar de simboluri şi arhetipuri cultural [Dictionary of Symbols and Cultural Archetypes]. Timișoara: Amarcord.
8. Florea, V. & Szekely, G. (2011). Dicţionar universal de artă plastică [Universal Dictionary of Plastic Art]. București: Litera.
9. Focillon, H. (1989). Arta sculptorilor romanici - Cercetări cu privire la istoria formelor [The Art of Romantic Sculptors - Research on the History of Forms].
10. Focillon, H. (1995). La vie des formes - Viaţa formelor şi Elogiul mâinii [The Life of Forms in Art and Praise of Hands]. București: Meridiane.
11. Grigorescu, D. (2003). Dicţionarul Avangardelor [Dictionary of Avantgardes].
București: Editura Enciclopedică.
12. Jones, A. F. (1992). Introductiere în artă [Introduction to Art]. București: Lider.
13. Pareyson, L. (1977). Estetica şi Teoria formativităţii [The Aesthetics and Theory of Formativity]. București: Univers.
14. Petrovici, V. (1974). Lumină și culoare în spectacol [Light and Color in Shows]. București: Albatros.
15. Petrovici, V. (1976). Tehnica iluminatului artistic [Artistic Lighting Technique]. București: Editura Technică.
16. Prut, C. (2002). Dicţionarde Artă modernă şi contemporană [Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art]. București: Editura Enciclopedică.
17. Read, H. (1969). Semnificaţia artei [The Meaning of Art]. București: Meridiane.
18. Read, H. (1971). Originea formei în artă [The Origins of Form in Art].
19. Sendrail, M. (1983). Sensul formelor - Înţelepciunea formelor [Meaning of Forms - Wisdom of Forms]. București: Meridiane.
20. Shepherd, R. & Shepherd, R. (2007). Dicţionar cu 1000 de simboluri - Semnificaţia formelor în artă şi mitologie [1,000 Symbols: What Shapes Mean in Art and Myth]. Oradea: Aquila‟93.
21. Titu, A. (2003). Experimentul în arta românească după 1960 [Experiment in Romanian Art after 1960]. București: Meridiane.
22. Truică, I. (2003). Teoria scenografiei [Theory of Scenography]. Iași: Junimea.