Open access


The coastline of Indonesia, which borders almost 17,500 islands and the sea and extends for more than 80,000 km, is vulnerable to sea level rise. This paper aims to investigate the impact of sea level rise on coastal ecology in Indonesia focusing on coastal area of Jakarta, Pekalongan, Semarang and Demak in the northern part of Java Island. Geo-spatial data, i.e. satellite images and maps were used to monitor the environmental changes and primary data were obtained through field survey and observation on the specified area. In Jakarta, sea level rise has been predicted to bring great damages to infrastructure in coastal area. Multiple impacts of sea level rise towards mangrove, agriculture, and aquaculture ecosystem occurs in Pekalongan. Semarang coastal area also suffers from the widening spread of health problems as the coastal inundation increases. At the same time, Demak experiences major losses on mangrove and aquaculture ecosystem due to sea level rise.


  • Bemmelen R.W., 1949. The Geology of Indonesia The Hague: Govt. Printing Office, Lolage.

  • Bird E.C.F., Ongkosongo O.S.R., 1980. Environmental changes on The Coast of Indonesia. The United Nations University, United Nations University Press.

  • IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change], 2000. IPCC Emission Scenario. Cambridge University Press, UK.

  • IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change], 2007. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007.

  • Irwani D., Pribadi R., Helmi M., 2010. Study of Coastal Erosion in Semarang Urban Area. Proceeding of Indonesian Delta Forum, October 21-22, 2010, Semarang, Indonesia.

  • Mardiatno D., Marfai M.A., Rahmawati K., Tanjung R., Sianturi R.S., Mutiarni Y.S., 2012. Multirisk Assesment of Coastal and River Floods in Pekalongan Utara. Cahaya Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  • Marfai M.A., King L., 2007. Monitoring land subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia. Environmental Geology 53: 651-659, DOI:10.1007/s00254-007-0680-3.

  • Marfai M.A., King L., 2008. Potential vulnerability implications of coastal inundation due to sea level rise for the coastal zone of Semarang city, Indonesian. Environmental Geology 54:1235-1245, DOI:10.1007/s00254-007-0906-4.

  • Marfai M.A., King L., Singh L.P., Mardiatno D., Sartohadi S., Hadmoko S.D., Dewi A., 2008a. Natural hazards in Central Java-Indonesia: an overview. Environmental Geology 56: 335-351, DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-1169-9.

  • Marfai M.A., Almohammad H., Dey S., Susanto B., King L., 2008b. Coastal Dynamic and Shoreline Mapping: Multi- sources Spatial Data Analysis in Semarang Indonesia. Environ Monit Assess, Springer,142: 297-308, DOI: 10.1007/s10661-007-9929-2.

  • Marfai M.A., 2011a. Impact of Coastal Inundation on Ecology and Agricultural Land Use, Case Study in Central Java, Indonesia. Questiones Geographicae 30(3): 19-32, DOI:10.2478/v10117-011-0024-y.

  • Marfai M.A., 2011b. The Hazards of Coastal Erosion in Central Java, Indonesia: An Overview. Geografia, Malaysia Journal of Society and Space 7(3): 1-9.

  • Maulina N., 2010. Shoreline Change Analysis and Prediction; An Application of Remote Sensing and GIS. M.Sc Thesis. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  • NBSC [National Bureau of Statistics Center - BPS], 2010. Indonesian Demographic Census 2010 Report. BPS.

  • Naylor R.L., Battisti D.S., Vimont D.J., Falcon W.C., Burke M.B., 2007. Assessing risks of climate change variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences 104(19): 7752-7757.

  • Purnama Ig.L.S., Trijuni S., Hanafi F., Aulia T., Razali R., 2012. Water Balance Analysis in Kupang and Sengkarang Watershed. Cahaya Press. Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  • Sartohadi J., Marfai M.A., Mardiatno D., 2009. Coastal zone management due to abrasion along the coastal area of Tegal, Central Java Indonesia. Proceeding International Coastal Conference, Nagoya Japan, 23-25 February 2009: 37-44.

  • Soedarsono S., 2011. The impact of land subsidence to Settlement Area in Semarang alluvial. PhD dissertation, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  • Sunarto S., 2004. Geomorphic Changes in Coastal Area Surround Muria Volcano. PhD dissertation. Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  • Ward P.J., Marfai M.A., Yulianto F., Hizbaron D.R., Aerts J.C.J.H., 2010. Coastal inundation and damage exposure estimation: a case study for Jakarta. Natural Hazards 56: 899-916.

  • Ward P.J., Marfai M.A., Poerbandono A.E., 2012. Flood-risk in Jakarta. In: J.C.J.H. Aerts, W. Botzen, M. Bowman, P. Dircke, P.J. Ward (eds), Climate adaptation and floodrisk in coastal cities, Earthscan, London, UK.

Quaestiones Geographicae

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.258
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.359


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 16 16 16
PDF Downloads 5 5 5