Word order and closest-conjunct agreement in the Greek Septuagint: On the position of a biblical translation in the diachrony of a syntactic correlation

Nikolaos Lavidas 1
  • 1 School of Philosophy, Faculty of English, Department of Language – Linguistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Abstract

Clauses can show closest-conjunct agreement, where the verb agrees only with one conjunct of a conjoined subject, and not with the full conjoined subject. The aim of this study is to examine the properties of word order and closest-conjunct agreement in the Greek Septuagint to distinguish which of them are due to the native syntax of Koiné Greek, possibly influenced by contact with Hebrew, and which of them are the result of a biblical translation effect. Both VSO and closest-conjunct agreement in the case of postverbal subjects have been considered characteristics of Biblical Hebrew. VSO becomes a neutral word order for Koiné Greek, and Koiné Greek exhibits examples of closest-conjunct agreement as well. The present study shows that VSO is the neutral word order for various types of texts of Koiné Greek (biblical and non-biblical, translations and non-translations) and that closest-conjunct agreement is also present with similar characteristics in pre-Koiné Greek. All relevant characteristics reflect a type of a syntactic change in Greek related to the properties of the T domain, and evidenced not only in translations or Biblical Greek. However, the frequencies of word orders are indeed affected by the source language, and indirect translation effects are evident in the Greek Septuagint.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abney, S. (1987). The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect. (Doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

  • Abraham, W. (1997). The interdependence of case, aspect, and referentiality in the history of German: The case of the genitive. In A. van Kemenade and N. Vincent (Eds.), Parameters of morphosyntactic change (pp. 29-61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Agbayani, B. and Golston, C. (2010). Phonological movement in Classical Greek. Language, 86(1), 133-167.

  • Alexiadou, A. (2003). Subject agreement asymmetries in coordination. In C. Maienborn and M. Krifka (Eds.), Asymmetrien (pp. 1-23). Tübingen: Stauffenburg.

  • Alexiadou, A. and Anagnostopoulou, E. (1998). Parametrizing AGR: Word order, V movement and EPP-checking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 16, 491-539.

  • Alexiadou, A., Anagnostopoulou, E., and Wurmbrand. S. (2014). Movement vs. long distance agree in raising: Disappearing phases and feature valuation. In H.-L. Huang, E. Poole, and A. Rysling (Eds.), Proceedings of the North Eastern Linguistics Society Annual Meeting 43 (pp. 1-12). Amherst: University of Massachusetts, GLSA.

  • Badecker, W. (2007). A feature principle for partial agreement. Lingua, 117, 1541-1565.

  • Bailey, N. A. (2009). Thetic constructions in Koiné Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). Vrije-Universiteit Amsterdam.

  • Baker, M. (2008). The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Belletti, A. (2001). ‘Inversion’ as focalization. In A. Hulk and J.-Y. Pollock (Eds.), Subject inversion and the theory of universal grammar (pp. 60-90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Benmamoun, E., Bhatia, A., and Polinsky, M. (2009). Closest conjunct agreement in head final languages. Linguistic Variation Yearbook, 9, 67-88.

  • Biberauer, T. and Roberts, I. (2010). Subjects, tense and verb-movement. In T. Biberauer, A. Holmberg, I. Roberts, and M. Sheehan (Eds.), Parametric variation: Null subjects in minimalist theory (pp. 263-302). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • BibleWorks (BNM and BLM). BibleWorks Greek New Testament Morphology (BNM). BibleWorks Greek LXX Morphology (BLM). Norfolk: BibleWorks, LLC. (2001). BibleWorks. v. 9.

  • Blass, F. and Debrunner. A. (1961). A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. Transl. and rev. Robert W. Funk. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Bobaljik, J. D. (2002). Realizing Germanic inflection: Why morphology does not drive Syntax. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 6, 129-167.

  • Bobaljik, J. D. (2008). Where’s phi? Agreement as a post-syntactic operation. In D. Harbour, D. Adger, and S. Béjar (Eds.), Phi-theory: Phi features across interfaces and modules (pp. 295-328). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Borer, H. (1986). I-subjects. Linguistic Inquiry, 17, 375-416.

  • Bošković, Ž. (2005). On the locality of left branch extraction and the structure of NP. Studia Linguistica, 59, 1-45.

  • Bošković, Ž. (2008). On Leo Tolstoy, its structure, case, left-branch extraction, and prosodic inversion. (Manuscript). University of Connecticut.

  • Bošković, Ž. (2009). Unifying first and last conjunct agreement. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 27, 455-496.

  • Bubenik, V. (1989). Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a sociolinguistic area. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

  • Chomsky, N. (2000). Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In R. Martin, D. Michaels, and J. Uriagereka (Eds.), Step by step. Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik (pp. 89-155). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Chomsky, N. (2001). Derivation by phase. In M. Kenstowicz (Ed.), Ken Hale: A life in language (pp. 1-52). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Chomsky, N. (2004). Beyond explanatory adequacy. In A. Belletti (Ed.), The cartography of syntactic structures. Vol. III: Structures and beyond (pp. 104-131). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Condoravdi, C. and Kiparsky, P. (2001). Greek clitics and clause structure. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 2, 1-39.

  • Corbett, G. (1983). ‘Resolution rules’: Agreement in person, number, and gender. In G. Gazdar, E. Klein, and G. Pullum (Eds.), Order, concord and constituency (pp. 175-206). Dordrecht: Foris.

  • Corbett, G. (2006). Agreement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Costa, J. (2004). Subject positions and interfaces. The case of European Portuguese. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Davison, M. E. (1989). New Testament Greek word order. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 4(1), 19-28.

  • Delbrück, B. (1900). Vergleichende Syntax der indogermanischen Sprachen. Vol. 1. Strassburg: Trübner.

  • Denniston, J. D. (1996) [1st ed. 1934]. The Greek particles. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.

  • Devine, A. M. and Stephens, L. D. (2000). Discontinuous syntax: Hyperbaton in Greek. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Devine, A. M. and Stephens, L. D. (2006). Latin word order. Structured meaning and information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dik, H. (1995). Word order in Ancient Greek. A pragmatic account of word order variation in Herodotus (Amsterdam Studies in Classical Philology 5). Amsterdam: Gieben.

  • Dik, H. (2007). Word order in Greek tragic dialogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dik, S. C. (1978). Functional Grammar. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

  • Doron, E. (2000). VSO and left-conjunct agreement: Biblical Hebrew vs. Modern Hebrew. In A. Carnie and E. Guilfoyle (Eds.), The syntax of verb-initial languages (pp. 75-95). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Dressler, W. U. (1969). Eine textsyntaktische Regel der idg. Wortstellung. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforshung auf dem Gebiet der Indogermanischen Sprachen, 83, 1-25.

  • Franks, S. and Progovac, L. (1994). On the placement of Serbo-Croatian clitics. Indiana Linguistic Studies, 7, 69-78.

  • Fraser, B. (2002). Word order in Greek stichic verse: Subject, verb, and object. Glotta, 28, 51-101.

  • Friberg, T. (1982). New Testament Greek word order in light of discourse considerations. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota.

  • Gelderen, E. van. (1997). Structures of tense and aspect. Linguistic Analysis, 27(3-4), 138-165.

  • Gelderen, E. van. (2000). A history of English reflexive pronouns. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

  • Gelderen, E. van. (2011a). Valency changes in the history of English. Journal of Historical Linguistics, 1(1), 106-143.

  • Gelderen, E. van. (2011b). The linguistic cycle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Georgiafentis, M. and Laskaratou, C. (2013a). Words in order: Introduction. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 13, 177-180.

  • Georgiafentis, M. and Laskaratou, C. (2013b). Word order flexibility and adjacency preferences: Competing forces and tension in the Greek VP. Journal of Greek Linguistics 13, 181-202.

  • Gesenius, F. H. W. (1910). Hebrew Grammar. 2nd English edition revised by A.E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Gianollo, C. (2011). Native syntax and translation effects. Adnominal arguments in the Greek and Latin New Testament. In E. Welo (Ed.), Indo-European syntax and pragmatics: Contrastive approaches (Oslo Studies in Language 3.3) (pp. 75-101). Oslo: University of Oslo.

  • Goldstein, D. (2015). Classical Greek syntax: Wackernagel’s law in Herodotos. Amsterdam: Brill.

  • Goodwin, W. W. (1978) [1894]. A Greek grammar. Reprint. London: St. Martin’s Press.

  • GRAMCORD. Greek New Testament and LXX for Windows. (2005). Vancouver, WA: The GRAMCORD Institute.

  • Grohmann, K. K. (2003). Prolific domains: On the anti-locality of movement dependencies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Guardiano, C. (2011). Parametric changes in the history of the Greek article. In D. Jonas, J. Whitman, and A. Garrett (Eds.), Grammatical change: Origins, nature, outcomes (pp. 179-197). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Guardiano, C. (2013). The Greek definite article across time. Studies in Greek Linguistics, 33, 76-91.

  • Guardiano, C., Michelioudakis, D., Ceolin, A., Irimia, M.-A., Longobardi, G., Radkevich, N., Silvestri G., and Sitaridou, I. (2016). South by Southeast. A syntactic approach to Greek and Romance micro-variation. L’Italia dialettale, 77, 95-166.

  • Heine, B. (2008). Contact-induced word order change without word order change. In P. Siemund and N. Kintana (Eds.), Language contact and contact languages (pp. 33-60). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Holmstedt, R. (2009). So-called first-conjunct agreement in Biblical Hebrew. In C. G. Häberl (Ed.), Afroasiatic studies in memory of Robert Hetzron: Proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of the North American Conference on Afroasiatic Linguistics (NACAL 35) (pp. 105-129). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

  • Holton, D., Mackridge, P., Philippaki-Warburton. I., and Spyropoulos, V. (2012). Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar. 2nd revised edition. London: Routledge.

  • Horrocks, G. (1981). Space and time in Homer: Prepositional and adverbial particles in the Greek epic. New York: Arno Press.

  • Horrocks, G. (2007). Syntax: From Classical Greek to the Koiné. In A. Phoibos Christidis (Ed.), A History of Ancient Greek (pp. 618-631). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Horrocks, G. (2010). Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd edition. Chichester/Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

  • Horrocks, G. (2016). The phases of the Greek language. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 71-88). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.

  • Humbert, J. (1930). La disparition du datif en grec. Paris: Champion.

  • Humbert, J. (1945). Syntaxe Grecque. Paris: Librairie Klincksieck.

  • Janse, M. (2002). Aspects of bilingualism in the history of the Greek language. In J. N. Adams, M. Janse, and S. Swain (Eds.), Bilingualism in ancient society: Language contact and the written word (pp. 332-390). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Janse, M. (2014). Bilingualism, diglossia and literacy in first-century Jewish Palestine. In G. K. Giannakis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek language and linguistics. Brill Online. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-ancient-greek-language-and-linguistics/bilingualism-diglossia-and-literacy-in-first-century-jewish-palestine-EAGLL_COM_00000107 (First appeared online: 2013) (14 October, 2014)

  • Johnson, C. A. (2013). Multiple antecedent agreement: A comparative study of Greek and Latin. In S. W. Jamison, H. C. Melchert, and B. Vine (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference (pp. 67-86). Bremen: Hempe.

  • Joseph, B. D. and Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1987). Modern Greek. London and New York: Croom Helm.

  • Joüon, P. (1923). Grammaire de l’Hébreu Biblique. Rome: Institut Biblique Pontifical.

  • Kazana, D. (2011). Agreement in Modern Greek coordinate noun phrases. Essex: University of Essex dissertation.

  • Keller, F. and Alexopoulou, T. (2001). Phonology competes with syntax: Experimental evidence for the interaction of word placement in the realization of information. Cognition, 79, 301-372.

  • Kiparsky, P. (1996). The shift to head-initial VP in Germanic. In H. Thráinsson, S. D. Epstein, and S. Peter (Eds.), Comparative Germanic syntax (pp. 140-179). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

  • Kiparsky, P. (1998). Partitive case and aspect. In M. Butt and W. Geuder (Eds.), The projection of arguments (pp. 265-307). Stanford: CSLI.

  • Kirk, A. (2012). Word order and information structure in New Testament Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). Leiden University.

  • Kiss. K. É. (1998). Identificational focus versus information focus. Language, 74(2), 245-273.

  • Koppen, M. van. (2005). One probe - two goals: Aspects of agreement in Dutch dialects. (Doctoral dissertation). Leiden University.

  • Koppen, M. van. (2006). A new view on first conjunct agreement. In J. Costa and M. Silva (Eds.), Studies on agreement (pp. 121-140). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

  • Koppen, M. van. (2008). Agreement with coordinated subjects: A comparative perspective. Linguistic Variation Yearbook, 7, 121-161.

  • Kroch, A. (1989). Reflexes of grammar in patterns of language change. Language Variation and Change, 1, 199-244.

  • Kroch, A. (2001). Syntactic change. In M. Baltin and C. Collins (Eds.), The handbook of contemporary syntactic theory (pp. 699-729). Malden, MA/Oxford: Blackwell.

  • Kühner, R. and Gerth, B. (1963) [1898/1904]. Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache. Zweiter Teil: Satzlehre. [Copious Grammar of the Greek Language. Second Part: Syntax]. Hannover: Hahn.

  • Kulikov, L. and Lavidas, N. (2013). Reconstructing passive and voice in Proto-Indo-European. Journal of Historical Linguistics, 3(1), 98-121.

  • Kwong, I. S. C. (2005). The word order of the Gospel of Luke: Its foregrounded message. London: T. and T. Clark.

  • Laskaratou, C. (1984). The passive voice in Modern Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Reading.

  • Laskaratou, C. (1989). A functional approach to constituent order with particular reference to Modern Greek. Implications for language learning and language teaching. Athens: Parousia Monograph Series 5.

  • Laskaratou, C. (1998). Basic characteristics of Modern Greek word order. In A. Siewierska (Ed.), Constituent order in the languages of Europe (pp. 151-174). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

  • Lavidas, N. (2014a). Change in partial number agreement in Greek: How and why to change your agreement in various ways. In L. Veselovská and M. Janebová (Eds.), Complex visibles out there (pp. 217-233). Olomouc modern language series vol. 4. Olomouc: Palacký University.

  • Lavidas, N. (2014b). The Greek Septuagint and language change at the syntax-semantics interface: from null to “pleonastic” object pronouns. In C. Gianollo, A. Jäger, and D. Penka (Eds.) Language change at the syntax-semantics interface (pp. 153-182). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.

  • Lavidas, N. (2015). How does a basic word order become ungrammatical? SOV from Classical to Koine Greek. Studies in Greek Linguistics, 35, 323-335.

  • Lavidas, N. (2017). Case in diachrony: Or, why Greek is not English. In E. Mathieu and R. Truswell (Eds.), Micro-change and macro-change in diachronic syntax (pp. 125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Levinsohn, S. H. (2000). Discourse features of New Testament Greek: A coursebook on the information structure of New Testament Greek. 2nd edition. Dallas: SIL International.

  • Levinsohn, S. H. (2006). The relevance of Greek discourse studies to exegesis. Journal of Translation, 2(2), 11-21.

  • Li, C. N. and Thompson. S. A. (1976). Subject and topic: A new typology of language. In C. N. Li (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 457-489). New York: Academic Press.

  • Luraghi, S. (1995). The function of verb initial sentences in some ancient Indo-European languages. In P. A. Downing and M. Noonan (Eds.), Word order in discourse (pp. 355-386). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Luraghi, S. (2010). The extension of the transitive construction in Ancient Greek. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 42(1), 60-74.

  • Luraghi, S. (2014). Case syncretism (morphological aspects of). In G. K. Giannakis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek language and linguistics. Brill Online. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-ancient-greek-language-and-linguistics/case-syncretism-morphological-aspects-of-EAGLL_COM_00000053 (First appeared online: 2013) (1 November, 2014).

  • Maloney, E. C. (1979). A study of Semitic interference in Marcan Syntax. (Doctoral dissertation). Fordham University.

  • Mambrini, F. and Passarotti, M. (2016). Subject-verb agreement with coordinated subjects in Ancient Greek. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 16(1), 87-116.

  • Marušič, F., Nevins, A., and Saksida A. (2007). Last-conjunct agreement in Slovenian. In R. Compton, M. Goledzinowska, and U. Savchenko (Eds.), Proceedings of formal approaches to Slavic linguistics: The Toronto meeting 2006 (pp. 210-227). Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.

  • Mathieu, E. and Sitaridou, I. (2005). Split wh-constructions in Classical and Modern Greek: A diachronic perspective. In M. Batllori, M.-L. Hernanz, C. Picallo, and F. Roca. (Eds.), Grammaticalization and parametric variation (pp. 236-250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Matić, D. (2003). Topic, focus, and discourse structure. Ancient Greek word order. Studies in Language, 27(3), 573-633.

  • Meecham, H. G. (1932). The letter of Aristeas. A linguistic study with special reference to the Greek Bible. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

  • Moser, A. (2008). The changing relationship of tense and aspect in Greek. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung / Typology and Universals (STUF), 61, 5-18.

  • Moser, A. (2009). Apopsi ke xronos stin istoria tis Elinikis [Aspect and tense in the history of Greek]. Athens: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

  • Moser, A. (2014). From aktionsart to aspect: Grammaticalization and subjectification in Greek. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 46(1), 64-84.

  • Moulton, J. H. (1908). A grammar of New Testament Greek. Volume 1: Prolegomena. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark.

  • Munn, A. (1999). First conjunct agreement: Against a clausal analysis. Linguistic Inquiry, 30, 643-668.

  • Otero, A. P. (2016). Hebraisms. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 182-192). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.

  • Paton, W. R. (1968). Polybius: The Histories (Loeb Classical Library). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1982). Provlimata sxetika me ti seira ton oron stis ellinikes protaseis [Problems regarding word order in Greek clauses]. Glossologia, 1, 99-107.

  • Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1985). Word order in Modern Greek. Transactions of the Philological Society, 2, 113-143.

  • Philippaki-Warburton, I. (2001). Glossologiki theoria ke sintaxi tis Ellinikis: i poikilia sti seira ton oron tis protasis [Linguistic theory and Greek syntax: variation in clausal word order]. In Y. Aggouraki, A.Arvaniti, J. I. M. Davy, D. Goutsos, M. Karyolaimou, A. Panagiotou, A. Papapavlou, P. Pavlou, and A. Roussou (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Greek linguistics (pp. 217-231). Thessaloniki: University Studio Press.

  • Philippaki-Warburton, I. and Spyropoulos, V. (2004). A change of mood: The development of the Greek mood system. Linguistics, 42, 523-549.

  • Philippi, J. (1997). The rise of the article in Germanic languages. In A. van Kemenande and N. Vincent (Eds.), Parameters of morphosyntactic change (pp. 62-93). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Platzack, C. (2001). Multiple interfaces. In E. van der Zee and U. Nikanne (Eds.), Cognitive interfaces: Constraints on linking cognitive information (pp. 21-53). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Porter, S. E. (2000). Septuagint/Greek Old Testament. In C. A. Evans and S. E. Porter (Eds.), Dictionary of New Testament background: A compendium of contemporary biblical scholarship (pp. 1099-1106). Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic.

  • Porter, S. E. (2012). The Greek of the Jews and early Christians: The language of the people from a historical sociolinguistic perspective. In D. Burns and J. W. Rogerson (Eds.), Far from minimal: Celebrating the work and influence of Philip R. Davies (pp. 350-364). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

  • Porter, S. E. (2014). Septuagint. In G. K. Giannakis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek language and linguistics. Brill Online. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-ancient-greek-language-and-linguistics/septuagint-EAGLL_COM_000029 (First appeared online: 2013) (4 December, 2014)

  • Porter, S. E. (2016). History of scholarship on the language of the Septuagint. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 15-38). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.

  • Rabin, C. (1976). Hebrew and Aramaic in the first century. In S. Safrai and M. Stern (Eds.), The Jewish people in the first century. vol. II (pp. 1007-1039). Philadelphia: Fortress.

  • Revell, E. J. (1993). Concord with compound subjects and related uses of pronouns. Vetus Testamentum, 43(1), 69-87.

  • Roberts, I. and Roussou, A. (1999). A formal approach to grammaticalization. Linguistics, 37, 1011-1041.

  • Roberts, I. and Roussou, A. (2003). Syntactic change: A minimalist approach to grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Robertson, A. T. (1934). A grammar of the Greek New Testament in light of historical research. Nashville: Broadman Press.

  • Ross, J. R. (1967). Constraints on variables in syntax. (Doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

  • Roussou, A. and Tsimpli, I. M. (2006). On Greek VSO again! Journal of Linguistics, 42, 317-354.

  • Sáenz-Badillos, A. (1993). A history of the Hebrew language. (Translated by J. Elwolde). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Schifano, N. (2018). Verb placement in Romance: A comparative study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Schwyzer, E. and Debrunner, A. (1950). Griechische Grammatik. Zweiter Band: Syntax und Syntaktische Stilistik. [Greek grammar. Second volume: Syntax and syntactic stylistics]. Munich: C. H. Beck.

  • Seiler, H. (1959). Zur Systematik und Entwicklungsgeschichte der griechischen Nominaldeklination. [On the system and history of the development of the Greek nominal declination/inflection]. Glotta, 37, 41-67.

  • Sifaki, E. (2003). EPP satisfiers: Verb-initial orders in Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). University of York.

  • Smyth, H. W. (1956). Greek grammar. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Snædal, M. (2015). Gothic contact with Greek. Loan translations and a translation problem. In J. O. Askedal and H. F. Nielsen (Eds.), Early Germanic languages in contact (NOWELE supplement series 27) (pp. 75-90). Amsterdam, Philadephia: John Benjamins.

  • Sollamo, R. (2016). The study of translation technique. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1. (pp. 161-171). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.

  • Spolsky, B. (1983). Triglossia and literacy in Jewish Palestine of the first century. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 42, 95-109.

  • Spyropoulos, V. (2011). Some remarks on conjunction and agreement in Greek: Implications for the theory of agreement. Proceedings of the 7th international conference of Greek linguistics. http://83.212.19.218/icgl7/Spyropoulos.pdf (December 5, 2018)

  • Spyropoulos, V. and Revithiadou, A. (2007). Subject chains in Greek and PF processing. (Manuscript). University of the Aegean. [lingBuzz/000497]

  • Spyropoulos, V. and Revithiadou, A. (2009). Subject chains in Greek and PF processing. In C. Halpert, J. Hartman, and D. Hill (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2007 workshop in Greek syntax and semantics at MIT (pp. 293-309). Cambridge, MA: MITWPL.

  • Stahl, J. M. (1907). Kritisch-historische Syntax des griechischen Verbums der klassischen Zeit. [A critical and historical syntax of the Classical Greek verb]. Heidelberg: Winter.

  • Stjepanović, S. (1998). Scrambling in Serbo-Croatian. (Manuscript). University of Connecticut.

  • Stjepanović, S. (1999). What do second position cliticization, scrambling, and multiple Wh-fronting have in Common? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Connecticut.

  • Swete, H. B. (1914). An introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. Revised by Richard Rusden Ottley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Tantalou, N. and Badecker, W. (2005). Experimental studies of agreement in Modern Greek and their consequences for grammatical theory. Poster presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the CUNY Human Sentence Processing Conference. Tuscon, AZ.

  • Taylor, A. (1994). The change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek. Language Variation and Change, 6(1), 1-37.

  • Taylor, A. (2008). Contact effects of translation: Distinguishing two kinds of influence in Old English. Language Variation and Change, 20(2), 341-365.

  • Terry, R. B. (1993). An analysis of certain features of discourse in the New Testament book of I Corinthians. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Arlington.

  • Thackeray, H. St. J. (1909). A grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag.

  • The Holy Bible. New Revised Standard Version. Anglicized Edition. (1995). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Villavicencio, A., Sadler, L., and Doug, A. (2005). An HPSG account of closest conjunct agreement in NP coordination in Portuguese. In S. Müller (Ed.), Proceedings of the HPSG05 conference (pp. 427-447). Stanford: CSLI Publications.

  • Viti, C. (2008). The verb-initial word order in the early poetry of Vedic and Homeric Greek. In K. J. Bley, M. E. Huld, A. D. Volpe, and M. R. Dexter (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th annual UCLA Indo-European conference, selected papers (pp. 89-111). Washington: Institute for the Study of Man.

  • Voitila, A. (2016). Septuagint syntax and Hellenistic Greek. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 109-118). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.

  • Wasserstein, A. and Wasserstein, D. J. (2006). The legend of the Septuagint: From classical antiquity to today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Zlatic, L. (1997). The structure of the Serbian noun phrase. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search