The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a measure developed by Mednick (1962) which is used to assess the convergent thinking component of creativity. This study presents a normative database in Spanish including 102 problems based on the RAT. Three sets of problems were built according to the type of between-word associations: semantic, compound, and two-word expressions. These problems were administered to a sample of 309 elementary, high-school, and university students. The results show good internal consistency as well as good convergent validity with insight problems, and discriminant validity using Guilford’s Alternative Uses Test. In addition, the results indicate age-related differences in the ability to solve the different types of problems.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Ansburg, P. I., & Hill, K. (2003). Creative and analytic thinkers differ in their use of attentional resources. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1141-1152.
Barbot, B., Lubart, T. I., & Besançon, M. (2016). “Peaks, slumps, and bumps”: Individual differences in the development of creativity in children and adolescents. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 151, 33-45.
Beaty. R. E., Silvia. P. J., Nusbaum. E. C., Jauk. E., & Benedek. M. (2014). The roles of associative and executive processes in creative cognition. Memory & Cognition, 42, 1186-1197.
Beeman, M. J., & Bowden. E. M. (2000). The right hemisphere maintains solution-related activation for yet-to-be-solved problems. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1231–1241.
Benedek, M., Könen, T., & Neubauer, A. C. (2012). Associative abilities underlying creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6, 273-281.
Benedek, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2013). Revisiting Mednick’s model on creativity-related differences in associative hierarchies. Evidence for a common path to uncommon thought. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 47, 273-289.
Berman, R. A. (2007). Developing linguistic knowledge and language use across adolescence. In E. Hoff & M. Shatz (Eds.), Blackwell handbooks of developmental psychology. Blackwell handbook of language development (pp. 347-367). Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
Best, J. R., Miller, P. H., & Jones, L. L. (2009). Executive functions after age 5: Changes and correlates. Developmental Review, 29, 180-200.
Bjorklund, D. F. (1987). How changes in knowledge base contribute to the development of children’s memory. Developmental Review, 7, 93-130.
Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 296-312.
Bowden, E. M., & Jung-Beeman, M. (2003). Normative data for 144 compound remote associate problems. Behavior Research Methods, 35, 634-639.
Bowden, E. M., Jung-Beeman, M., Fleck. J., & Kounios. J. (2005). New approaches to demystifying insight. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 322–328.
Brophy, D. R. (2001). Comparing the attributes, activities, and performance of divergent, convergent, and combination thinkers. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 439-455.
Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105.
Chermahini, S. A., Hickendorff, M., & Hommel, B. (2012). Development and validity of a Dutch version of the Remote Associates Task: An item-response theory approach. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 7, 177-186.
Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407-428.
DeYoung, C. G., Flanders, J. L., & Peterson, J. B. (2008). Cognitive abilities involved in insight problem solving: An individual differences model. Creativity Research Journal, 20, 278-290.
Dumontheil, I., Houlton, R., Christoff, K., & Blakemore, S.J., (2010). Development of relational reasoning during adolescence. Developmental Science, 13, 15-24.
Fernández, A., Díez, E., Alonso, M. A. & Beato, M. S. (2004). Free-association norms for the Spanish names of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 577-583.
Fodor, E. M. (1999). Subclinical inclination towardmanic-depression and creative performance on the Remote Associates Test. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1273–1283.
Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Corley, R. P., Young, S. E., DeFries, J. C., & Hewitt, J. K. (2006). Not all executive functions are related to intelligence. Psychological Science, 17, 172-179.
Gajda, A., Karwowski, M., & Beghetto, R. A. (2017). Creativity and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109, 269-299.
Gómez-Ariza, C. J., Del Prete, F., Prieto del Val, L., Valle, T., Bajo, M. T., & Fernández, A. (2017). Memory inhibition as a critical factor preventing creative problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43, 986-997.
Guilford. J. P. (1967). The nature of human intelligence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hamilton, M. A. (1982). “Jamaicanizing” the Mednick remote associates test of creativity. Perceptual and motor skills, 55, 321-322.
Howe, M. L., Wilkinson, S., Garner, S. R., & Ball, L. J. (2016). On the adaptive function of children’s and adults’ false memories. Memory, 24, 1062-1077.
Huizinga, M., Dolan, C. V., & van der Molen, M. W. (2006). Age-related change in executive function: Developmental trends and a latent variable analysis. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2017-2036.
Kleibeuker, S. W. De Dreu, C. K., & Crone. E. A. (2013a). The development of creative cognition across adolescence: distinct trajectories for insight and divergent thinking. Developmental Science, 16. 2-12.
Kleibeuker, S. W., De Dreu, C. K., & Crone, E. A. (2016). Creativity development in adolescence: Insight from behavior, brain, and training studies. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 151, 73-84.
Kleibeuker, S. W., Koolschijn, P. C. M., Jolles, D. D., Schel, M. A., De Dreu, C. K., & Crone, E. A. (2013b). Prefrontal cortex involvement in creative problem solving in middle adolescence and adulthood. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 197-206.
Lee, C. S., Huggins, A. C., & Therriault, D. J. (2014). A measure of creativity or intelligence? Examining internal and external structure validity evidence of the Remote Associates Test. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8, 446-460.
Lee, C. S. & Therriault, D. J. (2013). The cognitive underpinnings of creative thought: A latent variable analysis exploring the roles of intelligence and working memory in three creative thinking processes. Intelligence, 41, 306-320.
Macizo, P., Gómez Ariza, C. J., & Bajo, M. T. (2000). Associative norms of 58 Spanish words for children from 8 to 13 years old. Psicológica, 21, 287-300.
Mednick, S. A. (1962). The associative basis of the creative process. Psychological Review, 69, 220–232.
Mednick, S. A. (1968). Remote associates test. Journal of Creative Behavior, 2, 213-214.
Mikulincer, M., & Sheffi, E. (2000). Adult attachment style and cognitive reactions to positive affect: A test of mental categorization and creative problem solving. Motivation and Emotion, 24, 149-174.