Different bias mechanisms in recall and recognition of conceptual and perceptual information of an event

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the memory and response bias for conceptual and perceptual information in the recall and recognition of an event. The participants watched a movie trailer video and their memory of verbal and visual actions and details was evaluated using specific recall questions or a true/false recognition task. The participants recalled and recognized actions better than details, and visual information better than verbal information. Memory biases affected recall and recognition differently. The participants showed a high tendency to accept false verbal actions consistent with the gist of the event as true in the recognition task, while in the recall task the participants were more likely to answer incorrectly questions involving visual perceptual details. These results reflect the different mechanisms which are involved in the processing and cognitive management of conceptual and perceptual information of an event.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Alba J. W. & Hasher L. (1983). Is memory schematic? Psychological Bulletin 93 203-231. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.93.2.203

  • Brainerd C. J. & Reyna V. F. (1990). Gist is the grist: Fuzzy-trace theory and the new intuitionism. Developmental Review10 3-47. doi:10.1016/0273-2297(90)90003-M

  • Cabeza R. Grady C. L. Nyberg L. McIntosh A. R. Tulving E. Kapur S. Jennings J.M. Houle S. & Craik F. I. (1997). Age-related differences in neural activity during memory encoding and retrieval: A positron emission tomography study. The Journal of Neuroscience17 391-400.

  • Cohen G. & Conway M. A. (Eds.). (2008). Memory in the real world (3rd Ed.). London: Psychology Press.

  • Danckert S. L. & Craik F. I. (2013). Does aging affect recall more than recognition memory? Psychology and Aging28 902-909. doi:10.1037/a0033263

  • Diana R. A. Yonelinas A. P. & Ranganath C. (2007). Imaging recollection and familiarity in the medial temporal lobe: a three-component model. Trends in Cognitive Sciences11 379-386. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.001

  • Dodson C. S. & Schacter D. L. (2001). “If I had said it I would have remembered it:” Reducing false memories with a distinctiveness heuristic. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review8 155-161. doi:10.3758/BF03196152

  • Dodson C. S. & Schacter D. L. (2002). Aging and strategic retrieval processes: Reducing false memories with a distinctiveness heuristic. Psychology and Aging17 405-415. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.17.3.405

  • Doss M. K. Bluestone M. R. & Gallo D. A. (2016). Two mechanisms of constructive recollection: Perceptual recombination and conceptual fluency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition42 1747-1758. doi: 10.1037/xlm0000273

  • Evans J. R. & Fisher R. P. (2011). Eyewitness memory: Balancing the accuracy precision and quantity of information through metacognitive monitoring and control. Applied Cognitive Psychology25 501-508. doi:10.1002/acp.1722

  • Faul F. Erdfelder E. Lang A. G. & Buchner A. (2007). G*POWER 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social behavioral and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods39 175-191. doi:10.3758/BF03193146.

  • Förster J. (2012). GLOMOsys: The how and why of global and local processing. Current Directions in Psychological Science21 15-19. doi:10.1177/0963721411429454

  • García-Bajos E. Migueles M. & Aizpurua A. (2012). Bias of script-driven processing on eyewitness memory in young and older adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology26 737-745. doi:10.1002/acp.2854

  • García-Bajos E. Migueles M. & Aizpurua A. (2014). Conceptual and perceptual encoding instructions differently affect event recall. Cognitive Processing15 535-541. doi:10.1007/s10339-014-0615-3

  • Garoff-Eaton R. J. Kensinger E. A. & Schacter D. L. (2007). The neural correlates of conceptual and perceptual false recognition. Learning & Memory14 684-692. doi:10.1101/lm.695707

  • Gong L. Wang J. Yang X. Feng L. Li X. Gu C. ... & Cheng H. (2016). Dissociation between conceptual and perceptual implicit memory: Evidence from patients with frontal and occipital lobe lesions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience9 722. doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00722

  • Hopkins R. H. & Edwards R. E. (1972). Pronunciation effects in recognition memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11 534-537. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(72)80036-7

  • Israel L. & Schacter D. L. (1997). Pictorial encoding reduces false recognition of semantic associates. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review4 577-581. doi:10.3758/BF03214352

  • Jacoby L. L. Toth J. P. & Yonelinas A. P. (1993). Separating conscious and unconscious influences of memory: Measuring recollection. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General122 139-154. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.122.2.139

  • Johnson M. K. Hashtroudi S. & Lindsay D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin114 3-28. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.3

  • Johnson M. K. & Raye C. L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review88 67-85. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.88.1.67

  • Lanska M. Olds J. M. & Westerman D. L. (2014). Fluency effects in recognition memory: Are perceptual fluency and conceptual fluency interchangeable? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition40 1-11. doi:10.1037/a0034309

  • List J. A. (1986). Age and schematic differences in the reliability of eyewitness testimony. Developmental Psychology22 50-57. doi: 0012I649/86/S00.75

  • Mandler G. (1980). Recognizing the judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review87 252-271. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.87.3.252

  • McBride D. M. & Dosher B. A. (2002). A comparison of conscious and automatic memory processes for picture and word stimuli: A process dissociation analysis. Consciousness and Cognition11 423-460. doi:10.1016/S1053-8100(02)00007-7

  • Migueles M. & García-Bajos E. (1999). Recall recognition and confidence in eyewitness testimony. Applied Cognitive Psychology13 257-268. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0720(199906)13:3%3C257::AID-ACP566%3E3.0.CO;2-7

  • Migueles M. García-Bajos E. & Aizpurua A. (2016). Initial testing does not necessarily affect eyewitness recall assessed by specific questioning. Applied Cognitive Psychology30 294-300. doi: 10.1002/acp.3205

  • Miller M. B. & Gazzaniga M. S. (1998). Creating false memories for visual scenes. Neuropsychologia36 513-520. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(97)00148-6

  • Mirandola C. Toffalini E. Grassano M. Cornoldi C. & Melinder A. (2014). Inferential false memories of events: Negative consequences protect from distortions when the events are free from further elaboration. Memory22 451-461. doi:10.1080/09658211.2013.795976

  • Mitchell K. J. & Johnson M. K. (2009). Source monitoring 15 years later: What have we learned from fMRI about the neural mechanisms of source memory? Psychological Bulletin135 638-677. doi:10.1037/a0015849

  • Neisser U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

  • Ozubko J.D. Gopie N. & MacLeod C.M. (2012). Production benefits both recollection and familiarity. Memory & Cognition40 326-338. doi:10.3758/s13421-011-0165-1

  • Reinitz M. T. Séguin J. A. Peria W. & Loftus G. R. (2012). Confidence-accuracy relations for faces and scenes: Roles of features and familiarity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review19 1085-1093. doi:10.3758/s13423-012-0308-9

  • Roediger H. L. & McDermott K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition21 803-814. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.21.4.803

  • Rubin D. C. (2006). The basic-systems model of episodic memory. Perspectives on Psychological Science1 277-311. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00017.x

  • Sadeh T. Maril A. & Goshen-Gottstein Y. (2012). Encoding-related brain activity dissociates between the recollective processes underlying successful recall and recognition: A subsequent-memory study. Neuropsychologia50 2317-2324. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.05.035

  • Schacter D. L. Guerin S. A. & St. Jacques P. L. (2011). Memory distortion: An adaptive perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences15 467-474. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2011.08.004

  • Schacter D. L. Israel L. & Racine C. (1999). Suppressing false recognition in younger and older adults: The distinctiveness heuristic. Journal of Memory and Language40 1-24. doi:10.1006/jmla.1998.2611

  • Schank R. C. & Abelson R. (1977). Scripts plans goals and understanding. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Scoboria A. Talarico J. M. & Pascal L. (2015). Metamemory appraisals in autobiographical event recall. Cognition136 337-349. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.028

  • Slamecka N. J. & Graf P. (1978). The generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory4 592-604. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.4.6.592

  • Slotnick S. D. & Schacter D. L. (2004). A sensory signature that distinguishes true from false memories. Nature Neuroscience7 664-672. doi:10.1038/nn1252

  • Smith R. E. & Engle R. W. (2011). Study modality and false recall. Experimental Psychology58 117-124. doi:10.1027/1618-3169/a000076

  • Smith R. E. & Hunt R. R. (1998). Presentation modality affects false memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review5 710-715. doi:10.3758/BF03208850

  • Storbeck J. (2013). Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: Affect encoding and false memories. Cognition & Emotion27 800-819. doi:10.1080/02699931.2012.741060

  • Tulving E. (1982). Synergistic ecphory in recall and recognition. Canadian Journal of Psychology36 130-147. doi:10.1037/h0080641

  • Whittlesea B.W.A. & Leboe J.P. (2000). The heuristic basis of remembering and classification: Fluency generation and resemblance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General129 84-106. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.129.1.84

  • Woolnough P. S. & MacLeod M. D. (2001).Watching the birdie watching you: Eyewitness memory for actions using CCTV recordings of actual crimes. Applied Cognitive Psychology15 395-411. doi:10.1002/acp.717

  • Zaragoza M. S. Mitchell K. J. Payment K. & Drivdahl S. (2011). False memories for suggestions: The impact of conceptual elaboration. Journal of Memory and Language64 18-31. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2010.09.004

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.533

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 762 397 32
PDF Downloads 543 266 24