Discrimination Reversal Facilitates Contextual Conditioning in Rats’ Appetitive conditioning

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted with the goal of exploring the effect of experiencing associative interference upon concurrent learning about conditioned stimuli and contexts in rats’ appetitive conditioning. During the first training phase, two groups of rats received a conditioned stimulus (CS1) followed by food, whereas another conditioned stimulus (CS2) was presented alone. During a second training phase, discrimination was reversed in group R, while it remained the same in group D. A new conditioned stimulus (CS3) was concurrently trained followed by food during this second Phase (Experiment 1). Reversal discrimination did not facilitate concurrent conditioning of the new stimulus, but there was a trend towards facilitation of contextual conditioning, measured by magazine entries in the absence of stimuli, that was confirmed in Experiment 2. These results suggest that the interference treatment may facilitate context conditioning under circumstances and with boundaries that are yet to be established.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Alcalá, J. A., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E., Lamoureux, J. A., & Rosas, J. M. (2017). Discrimination Reversal Facilitates Subsequent Acquisition of Temporal Discriminations in Rats’ Appetitive Conditioning. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Alcalá, J. A., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E., Nelson, B., & Rosas, J. M. (2017). Reversal Training Facilitates Acquisition of New Learning in a Morris Water Maze. Manuscript in preparation.

  • Alcalá, J. A., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E. & Rosas, J. M. (2017). La teoría atencional del procesamiento contextual. Diez años de análisis del papel de la atención al contexto en la recuperación de la información. En: Nieto, J. & Berbal-Gamboa, R. (Eds). Estudios Contemporáneos en Cognición Comparada. México.

  • Aristizabal, J. A., Ramos-Álvarez, M. M., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E., & Rosas, J. M. (2016). Attention to irrelevant contexts decreases as training increases: Evidence from eye-fixations in a human predictive learning task. Behavioural Processes124, 66–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2015.12.008

  • Aristizabal, J. A., Ramos Álvarez M. M., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E., & Rosas J. M. (2017). Context-switches after short acquisition lead to an increase on attention to the context in a human predictive learning task. Behavioural Processes, 145, 31-36. http://10.1016/j.beproc.2015.12.008

  • Beesley, T., Nguyen, K. P., Pearson, D., & Le Pelley, M. E. (2015). Uncertainty and predictiveness determine attention to cues during human associative learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology68, 2175-2199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2015.1009919

  • Bernal-Gamboa, R., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E., Nieto, J., & Rosas, J. M. (2013). Extinction Makes Conditioning Time-Dependent. Journal of Experimental Psychology Animal Behavior Processes39, 221–232. http://doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0558-1

  • Bernal-Gamboa, R., Rosas, J. M., & Callejas-Aguilera, J. E. (2014). Experiencing extinction within a task makes nonextinguished information learned within a different task context-dependent. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 803-808. http://doi:10.3758/s13423-013-0558-1

  • Bouton, M. E. (1993). Context, time, and memory retrieval in the interference paradigm of Pavlovian learning. Psychological Bulletin114, 80–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.1.80

  • Bouton, M. E. (1994). Context, time, and ambiguity in Pavlovian conditioning. Current Directions in Psychological Science3, 49-53.

  • Bouton, M. E. (1997). Signals for whether versus when an event will occur. In: M. E. Bouton & M. S. Fanselow (Eds.), Learning, motivation, and cognition: The functional behaviorism of Robert C. Bolles (pp. 385–409). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10223-019

  • Bouton, M. E., & Brooks, D. C. (1993). Time and context effects on performance in a Pavlovian discrimination reversal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes19, 165–179. http://doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.19.2.165

  • Bouton, M. E., & King, D. A. (1983). Contextual control of the extinction of conditioned fear: Tests for the associative value of the context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes9, 248–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.9.3.248

  • Courville, A. C., Daw, N. D., & Touretzky, D. S. (2006). Bayesian theories of conditioning in a changing world. Trends in Cognitive Sciences10, 294–300. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.05.004

  • Darby, R. J., & Pearce, J. M. (1995). Effects of context on responding during a compound stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 21, 143–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.21.2.143

  • García-Gutiérrez, A., & Rosas, J. M. (2003). Context change as the mechanism of reinstatement in causal learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes29, 292–310. http://doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.29.4.292

  • Griffiths, O., Johnson, A. M., & Mitchell, C. J. (2011). Negative transfer in human associative learning. Psychological Science22, 1198–1204. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611419305

  • Hall, G., & Pearce, J. M. (1982). Restoring the associability of a pre-exposed CS by a surprising event. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B: Comparative and Physiological Psychology34, 127–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14640748208400881

  • Haselgrove, M., Esber, G.R., Pearce. J. M. & Jones, P. M. (2010). Two kinds of attention in pavlonian conditioninig: Evidence for a hybrid model of learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behaviour Processes, 36, 456-470. http://10.1037/a0018528

  • Hogarth, L., Dickinson, A., Austin, A., Brown, C., & Duka, T. (2008). Attention and expectation in human predictive learning: the role of uncertainty. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology61, 1658–6868. http://doi.org/10.1080/17470210701643439

  • Kaye, H., & Pearce, J. M. (1984). The strength of the orienting response during Pavlovian conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes, 10, 90–109. http://doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.10.1.90

  • Kehoe, E. J., Morrow, L. D., & Holt, P. E. (1984). General transfer across sensory modalities survives reductions in the original conditioned reflex in the rabbit. Animal Learning & Behavior12(2), 129–-136. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03213131

  • Koenig, S., Uengoer, M. & Lachnit, H. (2017). Attentional bias for uncertain cues of shock in human fear conditioning: evidence for attentional learning theory. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 266. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00266

  • Lamoureux, J. A., Dustan, J., Fabiano, A., & Nelson, B. (2017). Prior extinction enhances context conditioning in human predictive learning tasks. Proceedings and Abstracts of the Eastern Psychological Association, 88, 2.

  • Larrauri, J. A, & Schmajuk, N. A. (2008). Attentional, associative, and configural mechanisms in extinction. Psychological Review115, 640–676. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.3.640

  • León, S. P., Abad, M. J. F., & Rosas, J. M. (2010). The effect of context change on simple acquisition disappears with increased training. Psicológica, 31, 49–63.

  • León, S. P., Abad, M. J. F., & Rosas, J. M. (2011). Context-outcome associations mediate context-switch effects in a human predictive learning task. Learning and Motivation42, 84–98. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2010.10.001

  • León, S. P., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E., & Rosas, J. M. (2012). Context switch effects and Context Experience in Rats’ Conditioned Taste Aversion. Psicológica, 33, 15-38.

  • Le Pelley, M. E. (2004). The role of associative history in models of associative learning: A selective review and a hybrid model. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B: Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 57, 193–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724990344000141

  • Le Pelley, M. E., Beesley, T., & Griffiths, O. (2011). Overt attention and predictiveness in human contingency learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology Animal Behavior Processes, 37, 220–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021384

  • Le Pelley, M. E., Mitchell, C. J., Beesley, T., George, D. N. & Wills A. J. (2016). Attention and associative learning in humans: An integrative Review. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 1111-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/bul0000064

  • Le Pelley, M. E., Vadillo, M., & Luque, D. (2013). Learned predictiveness influences rapid attentional capture: Evidence from the dot probe task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39, 1888–1900. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033700

  • Lucke, S., Lachnit, H., Koenig, S., & Uengoer, M. (2013). The informational value of contexts affects context-dependent learning. Learning & Behavior, 41, 285–97. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-013-0104-z

  • McDonald, R. J., King, A. L., & Hong, N. S. (2001). Context-specific interference on reversal learning of a stimulus-response habit. Behavioural Brain Research121, 149–165. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(01)00160-7

  • Mackintosh, N. J. (1975). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimuli with reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076778

  • Nelson, J. B. (2002). Context Specificity of Excitation and Inhibition in Ambiguous Stimuli. Learning and Motivation, 33, 284–310. http://doi.org/10.1006/lmot.2001.1112

  • Nelson, J. B. (2009). Contextual control of first- and second-learned excitation and inhibition in equally ambiguous stimuli. Learning & Behavior37, 95–106. http://doi.org/10.3758/LB.37.1.95

  • Nelson, J. B., & Lamoureux, J. A. (2015). Contextual control of conditioning is not affected by extinction in a behavioral task with humans. Learning & Behavior, 43, 163-178. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-015-0170-5

  • Nelson, J. B., Lamoureux, J. A, & León, S. P. (2013). Extinction arouses attention to the context in a behavioral suppression method with humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes39, 99–105. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0030759

  • Nelson, J. B., Lombas, S., & Léon, S. P. (2011). Concurrent extinction does not render appetitive conditioning context specific. Learning & Behavior39, 87–94. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-011-0023-9

  • Ogállar P. M., Ramos-Álvarez M. M., Alcalá J.A., Moreno-Fernández M. M., & Rosas J. M. (2017). Attentional Perspectives on Context-dependence of Information Retrieval. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy17, 115-130.

  • Pavlov, I. P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes. Oxford: Oxford University Press

  • Pearce, J. M. & Hall, G. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review87, 532-552.

  • Rescorla, R. A. (2007). Spontaneous recovery after reversal and partial reinforcement. Learning & Behavior35, 191–200. http://doi:10.3758/BF03206425

  • Rescorla, R. A., & Wagner, A. R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In A. H. Black & W. R. Prokasy (Eds.), Classical conditioning, Vol. 2: current research and theory. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

  • Rosas, J. M., & Callejas-Aguilera, J. E. (2006). Context switch effects on acquisition and extinction in human predictive learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition32, 461–74. http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.32.3.461

  • Rosas, J. M., & Callejas-Aguilera, J. E. (2007). Acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion becomes context dependent when it is learned after extinction. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology60, 9–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/17470210600971519

  • Rosas, J. M., Callejas-Aguilera, J. E, Ramos-Álvarez, M. M., & Abad, M. J. (2006). Revision of Retrieval Theory of Forgetting: What does Make Information Context-Specific? International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy6, 147-166.

  • Rosas, J. M., Todd, T. P., & Bouton, M. E. (2013). Context change and associative learning. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science4, 237–244. http://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1225

  • Schmajuk, N. A, & Larrauri, J. A. (2006). Experimental challenges to theories of classical conditioning: application of an attentional model of storage and retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes32, 1–20. http://doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.32.1.1

  • Thomas, B. L., Larsen, N., & Ayres, J. J. B. (2003). Role of context similarity in ABA, ABC, and AAB renewal paradigms: Implications for theories of renewal and for treating human phobias. Learning and Motivation34, 410–436. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-9690(03)00037-7

  • Üngör, M., & Lachnit, H. (2006). Contextual control in discrimination reversal learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes32, 441–453. http://doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.32.4.441

  • Üngör, M., & Lachnit, H. (2008). Dissociations among ABA, ABC, and AAB recovery effects. Learning and Motivation, 39, 181–195. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2007.08.001

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search