Influence of Plum Rootstock on Flowering Intensity Depending on Concentration of Dry Matter and Reducing Sugars in Annual Shoots

Open access


The issue of the influence of rootstock on winter-hardiness of plum (Prunus × rossica Erem.) tree flower buds in the Baltic region is becoming important. The choice of rootstock is the main precondition for obtaining a high yielding and sustainable plum orchard. Freezing of flower buds is one of the most significant damages in winter for stone fruits. The aim of the investigation was to determine the relationship between concentration of dry matter and reducing sugars in annual shoots during winter and wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugar concentration in one-year-old shoots during winter was investigated during two successive seasons in two locations. Orchards were planted in 2001 in Latvia and in Estonia. The well-known plum cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus rossica Erem.) was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks (‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, and ‘Hamyra’) and eight generative propagated rootstocks (‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobalan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricate). Shoot samples were harvested two times during winter — at the end of January and at the end of March. Dry matter concentration (mg·g−1) and the concentration of reducing sugars (mg·g−1 DM) by Fehling’s solution method was determined. Tree flowering intensity was scored using a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 = no flowers and 5 = abundant flowering. Dry matter concentration in plum shoots varied among rootstocks, years and growing location. In Pūre, Latvia, the largest differences in dry matter concentration were found for trees grafted on ‘St. Julien INRA2’ (in 2011–2012) and ‘Brompton’ cuttings (in 2012–2013) but in Polli, Estonia for trees grafted on G5/22 (in 2011–2012) and ‘Myrobalan’ (in 2012–2013). One of the most stable rootstock/graft combinations in the trial when GF655/2 was used as rootstock, where dry matter concentration was between 491 and 525 mg·g−1, and reducing sugars between 37.5–49.2 mg·g−1, and flowering intensity between 2.5 and 4.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ashworth E. N. Stirm V. E. Volenec J. J. (1993). Seasonal variations in soluble sugars and starch within woody stems of Cornus sericea L. Tree Physiol.13 379–388.

  • Baciu A. Ciobanu A. Botu I. Cosmulescu S. Gruia M. Tudor I. (2012). Evaluation of the cultivar/rootstock combination rooting system for plum cultivars grown in the Central Area of Oltenia. Acta Hort. 968 125–132.

  • Dekena D Alsina I. Lepsis J. (2013). Influence of plum rootstocks on the dynamic of dry matter in the annual shoots of cultivar ‘Victoria’. Acta Hort. 976 355–360.

  • Dēķena Dz. Janes H. Poukh A. Alsiņa I. (2013). Influence of rootstock on plum flowering intensity in different growing regions. Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci. Section B 67 (2) 207–210.

  • Galasheva A. M. Krasova N. G. (2013). Water regime dynamics of apple varieties having different winter hardiness. Contemp. Horticult. 4 1–8.

  • Gaudillere J. P. Mang A. Carbone F. (1992). Vigour and non-structural carbohydrates in young prune trees. Scientia Hort. 51 197–211.

  • Grzyb S. Z. Sitarek M. Rozpara E. (2010). Evaluation of vigourus and dwarf plum rootstoks in the high density orchard in central Poland. Acta Hort. 874 351–356.

  • Krasova N. Galasheva A. Golishkina L. (2013). Apple-tree resistanceto abiotic factors in winter. Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci. Section B 67 (2) 136–144.

  • Lepsis J. Drudze I. Dekens U. (2004). The evaluation of different plum and pear rootstocks in the nursery. Acta Hort. 658 167–171.

  • Markuszewski B. Kopytowski J. (2013). Evaluation of plum cultivars grafted on ‘Wangenheim Prune’ rootstock in the northeast of Poland. Folia Hort. 2 101–106.

  • Moing A. Lafarque B. Lespinasse J. M. Gaudillere J. P. (1994). Non-structural carbohydrates in flower buds and vegetative buds in prune trees. Acta Hort. 359 287–295.

  • Morin X. Ameglio T. Ahas R. Kurz- Benson C. (2007). Variation in cold hardiness and carbohydrate concentration from dormancy induction to bud burst provenances of three European oak species. Tree Physiol. 27 817–825.

  • Pleshkov B. P. (1976). Plant Biochemistry Practitioner [Плешков Б. П. Практикум no биохимии растений]. Kolos Moscow. 255 pp. (in Russian).

  • Rachenko E. I. Rachenko M. A. Borovskii G. B. (2014). Cold hardiness of apple an changes in dehydrin composition. J. Stress Physiol. Biochem. 2 248–252.

  • Rozpara E. Gùowacka A. Grzyb Z. S. (2010). The growth and yields of plum cultivars grafted on two rootstocks in central Poland. Acta Hort. 874 255–259.

  • Snyder R. L. De Melo-Abreu J. P. (2005). Frost Protection: Fundamentals Practice and Economics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome. 126 pp.

  • Tyurina M. M. Demenko V. I. Goloulina L. K. Eczedi J. J. Arsentyev A. P. (2000). Physiology of winter toleration growth and fructification by fruit and small fruit plants [Физиология зимостойкости роста и плодоношения у плодовых и ягодных растений]. In: Proceedings of the International Conference “The History Present Time and the Perspective Progress of the Russian Horticulture” 15–17 November 2000 Moscow Russia. Moscow pp. 192–220 (in Russian).

  • Weibel M. Reighard G. Rajapakse N. C. DeJong M. L. (2011). Dormant carbohydrate reserves of two peach cultivars grafted on different vigour rootstocks. Acta Hort. 903 815–820.

  • Yoshioka H. Nagai K. Aoba K. Fukumoto M. (1988). Seasonal changes of carbohydrates metabolism in apple trees. Scientia Hort. 36 219–227.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.192

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 96 96 5
PDF Downloads 81 81 5