Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Associated Comorbidities in Children During 2002–2013 in Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Latvia

Abstract

The world has seen a rise of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children during the last 20 years. It is proposed that this increase is due to unhealthy eating habits, increasing obesity, especially among teenagers, and better diagnostics. The main risks associated with diabetes are microvascular and macrovascular complications, which can lead to early disability and premature death. The aim of our study was to identify children with type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and investigate associated comorbidities at the time of diagnosis in the Children’s Clinical University Hospital in Latvia. A retrospective analysis was performed of all children with type 2 diabetes mellitus or glucose tolerance impairment from 2002 till 2013, who were treated in Children’s Endocrinology Centre. According to inclusion criteria, 57 patients were selected of whom 24 (42%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 33 (58%) had impaired glucose tolerance. Body mass index was analysed according to percentile and all patients were found to have excess weight. In children with type 2 diabetes mellitus, all patients had body mass index over the 99th percentile. Arterial hypertension was found in 66.7% and dyslipidemia in 54.2% type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. From all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, 71% (n = 17) were girls and they had statistically significantly higher total cholesterol (p = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.003) levels. Considering, that girls with type 2 diabetes mellitus have high cardiovascular risk in adulthood, it is very important not only to achieve normal glucose levels early, but also to treat comorbidities, to reduce further microvascular and macrovascular complication risk.

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