Serogroups, Virulence Genes and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Cold Smoked Meat Products and Sprouted Grains in Latvia

Open access

Abstract

Although the information available on pathogenic Escherichia coli is in abundance, foodborne outbreaks are still a major problem. The aim of this study was to describe E. coli strains isolated from cold smoked meat products (37 samples) and sprouted grains (35 samples), to evaluate their virulence potential (vtx1, vtx2; eaeA), to determine serogroups and antibiotic resistance in Latvia. From the isolates tested 66 samples (91.7%) contained none of the virulence genes, 6 samples (8.3%) contained the eaeA gene, and two samples (2.8%) contained eaeA and vtx1 genes. Eleven samples (29.7%) isolated from meat products belonged to serogroups O103, O121, O145, O142, and O26. Six strains contained the eaeA gene, and four of them belonged to serogroup O103, one to O145, and one to O26. Two strains that additional to eaeA gene were also positive to vtx1 belonged to verotoxigenic O26. 31 samples (88.6%) isolated from sprouted grains belonged to serogroups O103 and O121; however, none of the strains contained any of the virulence genes. From strains isolated from meat products 46.0% were resistant to one to three antibiotics, but all isolates from sprouted grains were susceptible. Two strains showed multi-resistance and also contained the mcr-1 gene that encodes resistance to colistin.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Anonymous (1998). Report of a WHO Scientific Working Group Meeting. Zoonotic non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/68880/1/WHO_CSR_APH_98.8.pdf (last accessed 2 August 2017).

  • Anonymous (2009). The Center for Food Security and Public Health. Available from: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/ (last accessed 2 August 2017).

  • Anonymous (2011a). EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). EFSA assesses the public health risk of seeds and sprouted seeds. Available from: https://www.efsa.europa.eu (last accessed 2 August 2017).

  • Anonymous (2011b). USDA (Food Safety and Inspection Service). Available from: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/home (last accessed 2 August 2017).

  • Anonymous (2013a). CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Available from: https://clsi.org (last accessed 2 August 2017).

  • Anonymous (2013b). Scientific Opinion on VTEC-seropathotype and scientific criteria regarding pathogenicity assessment. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) J. 11 (4) 3138–3145.

  • Anonymous (2014). ECDC (European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control). European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Europe. Available from: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/antimicrobial-resistance-europe-2014.pdf (last accessed 2 August 2017).

  • Anonymous (2015). QYResearch Medical Research Centre. The global polymyxin industry report 2015. Available from: http://www.qyresearch.com (last accessed 20 October 2015).

  • Boerlin P. McEwen S. A. Boerlin-Petzold F. Wilson J. B. Johnson R. P. Gyles C. L. (1999). Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37 (3) 497–503.

  • Brooks J. T. Sowers E. G. Wells J. G. Greene K. D. Griffin P. M. Hoekstra R. M. Caprioli A. Morabito S. Brugere H. Oswald E. (2005). Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Emerging issues on virulence and modes of transmission. Vet. Res. 36 (3) 289–311.

  • Catford A. Kouamé V. Martinez-Perez A. Gill A. Buenaventura E. Couture H. Farber J. M. (2014). Risk profile on non-O157 verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in produce beef milk and dairy products in Canada. Int. Food Risk Anal. J. 4 (21) 201–208.

  • Cavaco L. Hendriksen R. (2015). PCR for plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 laboratory protocol. Available from: http://www.crl-ar.eu/data/images/protocols/mcr-1_pcr_protocol_v1_dec2015.pdf (last accessed 5 September 2017).

  • Duffy G. Garvey P. McDowell D. (eds.) (2001). Verocytotoxigenic E. coli. Food & Nutrition Press Connecticut. 457 pp.

  • Eklund M. Leino K. Siitonen A. (2002). Clinical Escherichia coli strains carrying stx genes: stx variants and stx-positive virulence profiles. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40 (12) 4585–4593.

  • Ethelberg S. Olsen K. E. P. Scheutz F. Jensen Ch. Schiellerup P. Engberg J. Petersen A. M. Olesen B. Gerner-Smidt P. Mølbak K. (2004). Virulence factors for hemolytic uremic syndrome Denmark. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10 (5) 842–847.

  • Gales A. C. Jones R. N. Sader H. S. (2011). Contemporary activity of colistin and polymyxin B against a worldwide collection of Gram-negative pathogens: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2006–09). J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66 (9) 2070–2074.

  • Jiang Y. Yin S. Dudley E. G. Cutter C. N. (2015). Diversity of CRISPR loci and virulence genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from various sources. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 204 41–46.

  • Karmali M. A. Mascarenhas M. Shen S. Ziebell K. Johnson S. Reid-Smith R. Isaac-Renton J. Clark C. Rahn K. Kaper B. (2003). Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes that are linked to epidemic and/or serious disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41 (11) 4930–4940.

  • Liu Y. Y. Wang Y. Walsh T. R. Yi L.X. Zhang R. Spencer J. Doi Y. Tian G. Dong B. Huang X. Yu L. F. Gu D. Ren H. Chen X. Lv L. He D. Zhou H. Liang Z. Liu J. H. Shen J. (2016). Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: A microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 16 (2) 161–168.

  • Nataro J. P. Kaper J. B. (1998). Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11 (1) 142–201.

  • Nielsen E. M. Andersen T. M. (2003). Detection and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli by automated 5′ nuclease PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41 (7) 2884–2893.

  • Orskov I. Orskov F. Jann B. Jann K. (1977). Serology chemistry and genetics of O and K antigens of Escherichia coli. Bacteriol. Rev. 41 (3) 667–710.

  • Perelle S. Dilasser F. Grout J. Fach P. (2004). Detection by 5’-nuclease PCR of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O26 O55 O91 O103 O111 O113 O145 and O157:H7 associated with the world’s most frequent clinical cases. Mol. Cell. Probes18 (3) 185–189.

  • Rasko D. A. Rosovitz M. J. Myers G. S. A. Mongodin E. F. Fricke W. F. Gajer P. Crabtree J. Sebaihia M. Thomson N. R. Chaudhuri R. Henderson I. R. Sperandio V. Ravel J. (2008). The pangenome structure of Escherichia coli: comparative genomic analysis of E. coli commensal and pathogenic isolates. J. Bacteriol. 190 (20) 6881–6893.

  • Schroeder C. M. Meng J. Zhao Sh. DebRoy Ch. Torcolini J. Zhao C. McDermott P. W. Wagner D. D. Walker R. D. White D. G. (2002). Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli O26 O103 O111 O128 and O145 from animals and humans. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8 (12) 1409–1414.

  • Stenutz R. Weintraub A. Widmalm G. (2005). The structures of Escherichia coli O polysaccharide antigens. FEMS (Federation of European Microbiological Societies) Microbiol. Rev. 30 (3) 376–380.

  • Threlfall E. J. Ward L. R. Frost J. A. Willshaw G. A. (2000). The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in food-borne bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 62 (2) 1–5.

  • Wang J. Stanford K. McAllister T. A. Johnson R. P. Chen H. Zhang G. Niu Y. D. (2016). Biofilm formation virulence gene profiles and antimicrobial resistance of nine serogroups of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 13 (6) 316–324.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.192

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 187 158 5
PDF Downloads 104 77 4