Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2) is the primary agent of Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS), and is associated with Porcine Circovirus Associated Disease, which causes great economic losses in pig breeding. PCV2 infection is distributed worldwide throughout the domestic pig population. There have not been any investigations on the distribution of PCV2 sero-prevalence in the population of pigs in Latvia. However PCV2 is one of main differential infections for many diseases, and therefore it is very variable in clinical presentation of PMWS and other diseases associated with PCV2. The objective of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of PCV2 in pigs of different-scale farms located in different regions of Latvia. Blood samples of 963 pigs from 58 different-scale farms were examined for the PCV2 antibody from 2006 to 2016. It can be suggested that PCV2 is widespread within the territory of Latvia. Farms with pig number of up to 10 and farms with more than 5000 animals have different levels of biosafety, housing conditions and herd management. Nevertheless, the study showed that the number of PCV2-seropositive animals is similar in all farms (from 70.0% to 79.7%).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Allan G. M. Phenix K. V. Todd D. McNulty M. S. (1994). Some biological and physico-chemical properties of porcine circovirus. Zentralbl. Veterinarmed. B41 17–26.
Anonymous (2017a). Public data base Agricultural Data Centre. Available from: http://pub.ldc.gov.lv/pub_stat.php?lang=lv
Anonymous (2017b). Public data base Register of Veterinary Medicinal Products. Available from: https://registri.pvd.gov.lv/vz
Barbosa C. N. Martins N. R. S. Freitas T. R. P. Lobato Z. I. P. (2014). Serological survey of Porcine circovirus-2 in captive wild boars (Sus scrofa) from registered farms of South and South-east regions of Brazil. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 63 (2) 278–280.
Bielanski A. Larochelle R. Magar R. (2004). An attempt to render oocytes and embryos free from the porcine circovirus type 2 after experimental in vitro exposure. Can. J. Vet. Res. 68 222–225.
Blunt R. McOrist S. McKillen J. McNair I. Jiang T. Mellits K. (2011). House fly vector for porcine circovirus 2b on commercial pig farms. Vet. Microbiol. 149 452–455.
Caprioli A. McNeilly F. McNair I. Lagan-Tregaskis P. Ellis J. Krakowka S. McKillen J. Ostanello F. Allan G. (2006). PCR detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) DNA in blood tonsillar and faecal swabs from experimentally infected pigs. Res.Vet. Sci. 81 287–292.
Eddicks M. Koeppen M. Willi S. Fux R. Reese S. Sutter G. Stadler J. Ritzmann M. (2016). Low prevalence of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in farrowing sows and corresponding pre-suckling piglets in southern German pig farms. J. Vet. Microbiol. 187 70–74.
Ellis J. A. Bratanich A. Clark E. G. Allan G. Meehan B. Haines D. M. Harding J. West K. H. Krakowka S. Konoby C. Hassard L. Martin K. McNeilly F. (2000). Coinfection by porcine circoviruses and porcine parvovirus in pigs with naturally acquired postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Vet. Diagn.Investig. 12 21–27.
Garcia L. A. Viancelli A. Rigotto C. Pilotto M. R. Esteves P. A. Kunz A. Barardi C. R. (2012). Surveillance of human and swine adenovirus human norovirus and swine circovirus in water samples in Santa Catarina Brazil. Water Health10 445–452.
Hammer R. Ritzmann M. Palzer A. Lang C. Hammer B. Pesch S. Ladinig A. (2012). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany. J. Wildl. Dis.48 (1) 87–94.
Harding J. C. Clark E. G. (1997). Recognizing and diagnosing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Swine Health Prod.5 201–203.
Karuppannan A. K. Opriessnig T. (2017). Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) vaccines in the context of vurrent molecular epidemiology. Virus9 (99) 1–15.
Kim J. Han D. U. Choi C. Chae C. (2003). Simultaneous detection and differentiation between porcine circovirus and porcine parvovirus in boar semen by multiplex seminested polymerase chain reaction. Vet. Med. Sci. 65 741–744.
Kim H. B. Lyoo K. S. Joo H. S. (2009). Efficacy of different disinfectants in vitro against porcine circovirus type 2. Vet. Rec.164 599–600.
Larochelle R. Magar R. D’Allaire S. (2003). Comparative serologic and virologic study of commercial swine herds with and without postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Can. J. Vet. Res. 67 114–120.
Lopez-Soria S. Segalés J. Rose N. Vinas M. J. Blanchard P. Madec F. Jestin A. Casal J. Domingo M. (2005). An exploratory study on risk factors for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Spain. Prev. Vet. Med. 69 97–107.
Madson D. M. Patterson A. R. Ramamoorthy S. Pal N. Meng X. J. Opriessnig T. (2009). Reproductive failure experimentally induced in sows via artificial insemination with semen spiked with porcine circovirus type 2. Vet. Pathol. 46 707–716.
O’Dea M. A Hughes A. P. Davies L. J. Muhling J. Buddle R. Wilcox G. E. (2008). Thermal stability of porcine circovirus type 2 in cell culture. J. Virol. Meth. 147 61–66.
Park J. S. Kim J. Ha Y. Jung K. Choi C. Lim J. K. Kim S. H. Chae C. (2005). Birth abnormalities in pregnant sows infected intranasally with porcine circovirus 2. J. Comp. Pathol. 132 139–144.
Pensaert M. B. Sanchez R. E. J. Ladekjaer-Mikkelsen A. S. Allan G. M. Nauwynck H. J. (2004). Viremia and effect of fetal infection with porcine viruses with special reference to porcine circovirus 2 infection. Vet. Microbiol. 98 175–183.
Ramamoorthy S. Meng X. J. (2009). Porcine circoviruses: A minuscule yet mammoth paradox. Animal Health Res. Rev. 10 1–20.
Reiner G. Bronnert B. Hohloch C. Fresen C. Haack I. Willems H. Reinacher M. (2010). Qualitative and quantitative distribution of PCV2 in wild boars and domestic pigs in Germany. Vet. Microbiol.145 (1–2) 1–8.
Rodriguez-Arrioja G. M. Segalés J. Calsamiglia M. Resendes A. R. Balasch M. Plana-Duran J. Casal J. Domingo M. (2002). Dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 infection in a herd of pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Amer. J. Vet Res.63 354–357.
Segales J. Pastor J. Cuenca R. Domingo M. (2000). Haematological parameters in post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome affected pigs. Vet. Rec.146 675–676.
Segales J. Allan G. M. Domingo M. (2005). Porcine circovirus diseases. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 6 119–142.
Sibila M. Calsamiglia M. Segalés J. Blanchard P. Badiella L. Le Dimna M. Jestin A. Domingo M. (2004). Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay and an ELISA to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 infection in pigs from farms with and without postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 65 (1) 88–92.
Stankevicius A. Sibila M. Čepulis R. Segales J. (2007). First description of porcine circovirus type 2 associated diseases in Lithuania and Latvia. In: PMWS PRRS Swine influenza and associated diseases. Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Emerging and Re-emerging Pig Disease 24–27 June 2007 Kraków. PHU Kopiorama Kraków Poland p. 82.
Tischer I. Gelderblom H. Vettermann W. Koch M. A. (1982). A very small porcine virus with circular single-stranded DNA. Nature295 64–66.
Tischer I. Bode L. Peters D. Pociuli S. Germann B. (1995). Distribution of antibodies to porcine circovirus in swine populations of different breeding farms. Arch. Virol. 140 737–743.
Verreault D. Létourneau V. Gendron L. Massé D. Gagnon C. A. Duchaine C. (2010). Airborne porcine circovirus in Canadian swine confinement buildings. Vet. Microbiol. 141 224–230.
Vicente J. Segalés J. Höfle U. Balasch M. Plana-Durán J. Domingo M. Gortázar C. (2004). Epidemiological study on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vet Res. 35 (2) 243–253.
Walker I. W. Konoby C. A. Jewhurst V. A. McNair I. McNeilly F. Meehan B. M. Cottrell T. S. Ellis J. A. Allan G. M. (2000). Development and application of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of serum antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.. 12 400–405.
Xiao C. T. Harmon K. M. Halbur P. G. Opriessnig T. (2016). PCV2d-2 is the predominant type of PCV2 DNA in pig samples collected in the U.S. during 2014–2016. J. Vet. Microbiol. 197 72–77.
Yang J. S. Song D. S. Kim S. Y. Lyoo K. S. Park B. K. (2003). Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 in feces of pigs with or without enteric disease by polymerase chain reaction. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 15 369–373.
Yang X. Hou L. Ye J. He Q. Cao S. (2012). Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in mosquitoes from pig farms by PCR. Pak. Vet. J. 32 134–135.
Zhai S. L. Chen S. N. Xu Z. H. Tang M. H. Wang F. G. Li X. J. Sun B. B. Deng S. F. Hu J. Lv D. H. Wen X. H. Yuan J. Luo M. L. (2014). Porcine circovirus type 2 in China: An update on and insights to its prevalence and control. Virol. J. 11 88.