Physiological Weight Loss Among Neonates: Associated Factors and Compliance with Normative Charts

Open access


Neonates typically have a physiological weight loss (PWL) during the first days of life. Several studies about PWL and its influencing factors have been performed worldwide, resulting in the development of normative charts to identify high risk neonates. Up to now there is neither a study about PWL in Latvia nor charts developed for the Baltic region. The objective of the study was to analyse PWL and associated factors in Latvian neonates as well as to evaluate the possibility to use PWL charts of the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP). The study included data (gestational week, delivery type, sex, feeding type, health status) of 220 Latvian newborns treated in the neonatology department of Children Clinical Hospital Gaiļezers and in-an out-patient praxis in Riga. Their mean PWL was compared among neonates with different factors and plotted on PWL charts. The mean PWL was 6.4% (SD ± 2.31%) and in univariate analysis it was associated with feeding type (p = 0.06) and health status (p = 0.01). In multiple regression analysis PWL was significantly associated with health status (p = 0.01). The usage of AAP charts could be generally recommended to identify high risk neonates, but development of charts for the Baltics should be discussed..

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bertini G. Breschi R. Dani C. (2014). Physiological weight loss chart helps to identify high-risk infants who need breastfeeding support. Acta Paediatrica104 (10) 1024–1027.

  • Broka L. Daugule I. Ciproviča I. Kviļūna D. Rumba-Rozenfelde I. (2016). Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating woman in Latvia. Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci. 70 (2) 47–50.

  • Caglar M. K. Ozer I. Altugan F. S. (2006). Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Brazilian J. Med. Biol. Research39 (4) 539–544.

  • Chen C. F. Hsu M. C. Shen C.H. Wang C. L. Chang S. C. Wu K. G. Wu S. C. Chen S. J. (2011). Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss jaundice and waste elimination in neonates. Pediatr. Neonatol. 52 (2) 85–92.

  • Davanzo R. Cannioto Z. Ronfani L. Monasta L. Demarini S. (2013). Breastfeeding and neonatal weight loss in healthy term infants. J. Human Lactation29 (1) 45–53.

  • Flaherman V. J. Schaefer E. W. Kuzniewicz M. W. Li S. X. Walsh E. M. Paul I. M. (2015). Early weight loss nomograms for exclusively breastfed newborns. Pediatrics135 (1) 16–23.

  • Macdonald P. D. Ross S. R. M. Grant L. Young D. (2003). Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants. Arch. Dis. Childhood. Fetal Neonat. Ed. 88 (6) 472–476.

  • Manganaro R. Mamì C. Marrone T. Marseglia L. Gemelli M. (2001). Incidence of dehydration and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. J. Pediatr. 139 (5) 673–675.

  • Martens P. J. Romphf L. (2007). Factors associated with newborn in-hospital weight loss: Comparisons by feeding method demographics and birthing procedures. J. Human Lactation23 (3) 233–241.

  • Mezzacappa M. A. Ferreira B. G. (2016). Excessive weight loss in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital. Revista Paulista de Pediatria34 (3) 281–286.

  • Miller J. R. Flaherman V. J. Schaefer E. W. Kuzniewicz M. W Li S. X. Walsh E. M. Paul I. M. (2015). Early weight loss nomograms for formula fed newborns. Hospital Pediatrics5 (5) 263–268.

  • Noel-Weiss J. Courant G. Woodend K. A. (2008). Physiological weight loss in the breastfed neonate: A systematic review. Open Medicine2 (4) 99–110.

  • Preer G. L. Newby P. K. Philipp B. L. (2012). Weight loss in exclusively breastfed infants delivered by Cesarean birth. J. Human Lactation28 (2) 155-158.

  • Rautava S. (2015). Neonatal weight loss and exclusive breastfeeding. Acta Pœdiatrica104 (10) 965–966.

  • Saki A. Eshraghian M. R. Mohammad K. Foroushani A. R. Bordbar M. R. (2010). A prospective study of the effect of delivery type on neonatal weight fain pattern in exclusively breastfed neonates born in Shiraz Iran. Int. Breastfeed. J. 51.

  • Tawia S. McGuire L. (2014). Early weight loss and weight gain in healthy full-term exclusively-breastfed infants. Breastfeed. Rev. 22 (1) 31–42.

  • Thulier D. (2016). Weighing the facts: A systematic review of expected patterns of weight loss in full-term breastfed infants. J. Human Lactation32 (1) 28–34.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.192

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 194 100 10
PDF Downloads 149 83 11