Population Genetics of Latvians in the Context of Admixture between North-Eastern European Ethnic Groups

Open access

Abstract

This article presents a review on population genetics of Latvians, which alongside Lithuanians are the two extant Baltic speaking populations. The article provides a description of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and contains a comparative analysis of the results of studies performed on classical autosomal genetic markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome (NRY), with data on neighbouring populations. The study also covers data of recently performed ancient DNA (aDNA) studies carried out on samples from the territory of today’s Latvia. The results of population genetic studies have shown a mixture of eastern and western genetic traits in present-day Latvians with only small differences between Latvian subpopulations. Studies of the Baltic “tribal gene” LWb, as well as the gene’s SERPINA1 allele PIZ have indicated the presence of a considerable Baltic admixture in the neighbouring Finno-Ugric and Slavic populations. Although mtDNA analyses have shown that Latvians genetically in general belong to the same common gene pool as most of the Europeans, the Y-chromosomal lineage composition suggests that they are most similar to Northern and Eastern European populations of Lithuanians, Estonians, and Eastern-Slavic populations, which are ethnogenetically closest to them. The analysis of aDNA from the Early and Middle Neolithic did not present any genomic evidence of gene-flow from Central European farmers or any mitochondrial or Y-chromosomal haplogroups that are typical for them in the hunter-gatherers from the territory of today’s Latvia and Lithuania.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ajioka R. S. Jorde L. B. Gruen J. R. Yu P. Dimitrova D. Barrow J. Radisky E. Edwards C. Q. Griffen L. M. Kushner J. P. (1997). Haplotype analysis of hemochromatosis: Evaluation of different linkage-disequilibrium approaches and evolution of disease chromosomes. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 60 1439–1447.

  • Allentoft M. E. Sikora M. Sjögren K.-G. Rasmussen S. Rasmussen M. Stenderup J. Damgaard P. B. Schroeder H. Ahlström T. Vinner L. Malaspinas A.-P. Margaryan A. Higham T. Chivall D. Lynnerup N. Harvig L. Baron J. Casa P. D. Dąbrowski P. Duffy P. R. Ebel A. V. Epimakhov A. Frei K. Furmanek M. Gralak T. Gromov A. Gronkiewicz S. Grupe G. Hajdu T. Jarysz R. Khartanovich V. Khokhlov A. Kiss V. Kolįų J. Kriiska A. Lasak I. Longhi C. McGlynn G. Merkevicius A. Merkyte I. Metspalu M. Mkrtchyan R. Moiseyev V. Paja L. Pįlfi G. Pokutta D. Pospieszny L. Price T. D. Saag L. Sablin M. Shishlina N. Vįclav Smrčka V. Soenov V. I. Szeverényi V. Tóth G. Trifanova S. V. Varul L. Vicze M. Yepiskoposyan L. Zhitenev V. Orlando L. Sicheritz-Pontén T. Brunak S. Nielsen R. Kristiansen K. Eske Willerslev E. (2015). Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature522 167–172.

  • Balanovsky O. Pocheshkhova E. Pshenichnov A. Solovieva D. Kuznetsova M. Voronko O. Churnosov M. Tegako O. Atramentova L. Lavryashina M. Evseeva I. Borinska S. Boldyreva M. Dubova N. Balanovska E. (2005). Is spatial distribution of the HIV-resistant CCR5Δ32 allele formed by ecological factors? J. Physiol. Anthropol. Appl. Hum. Sci. 24 375–382.

  • Balanovsky O. Rootsi S. Pshenichnov A. Kivisild T. Churnosov M. Evseeva I. Pocheshkhova E. Boldyreva M. Yankovsky N. Balanovska E. Villems R. (2008). Two sources of the Russian patilineal heritage in their Eurasian context. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 82 236–250.

  • Beckman L. Sikstrom C. Mikelsaar A.-V. Krumina A. Kučinskas V. Beckman G. (1999). α1 –antitrypsin (PI) alleles as markers of West-european influence in the Baltic Sea region. Human Heredity49 52–55.

  • Bergholdt H. K. M. Nordestgaard B. G. Varbo A. Ellervik C. (2015). Milk intake is not associated with ischaemic heart disease in observational or Mendelian randomization analyses in 98529 Danish adults. Int. J. Epidem. 44 (2) 587–603.

  • Bermisheva M. Tambets K. Villems R. Khusnutdinova E. (2002). Diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in ethnic populations of the Volga-Ural region of Russia. Mol. Biol. (Moscow) 36 802–812.

  • Bersaglieri T. Sabeti P. C. Patterson N. Vanderploeg T. Schaffner S. F. Drake J. A. Rhodes M. Reich D. E. Hirschhorn J. N. (2004). Genetic signatures of strong recent positive selection at the lactase gene. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 74 1111–1120.

  • Bērziņš V. Vasks A. (2013). Latvijas aizvēsture (līdz 800. gadam) [Prehistory of Latvia (until 800)]. In: Stradiņš J. (Ed.). Latvieši un Latvija [Latvians and Latvia] I sēj. Latvieši [Latvians]. LZA Rīga pp. 51–83 (in Latvian).

  • Blanco I. de Serres F.J. Fernandes-Bustillo E. Lara B. Miravitlles M. (2006). Estimated numbers and prevalence of PI S and PI Z alleles of α1 – antitrypsin deficiency in European countries. Eur. Respir. J. 27 77–84.

  • Bouckaert R. Lemey P. Dunn M. Greenhill S. J. Alekseyenko A. V. Drummond A. J. Gray R. D. Suchard M. A. Atkinson Q. D. (2012). Mapping the origins and expansion of the Indo-European language family. Science337 957–960.

  • Brandt G. Haak W. Adler C. J. Roth C. Szėcsényi-Nagy A. Karimnia S. Möller-Rieker S. Meller H. Ganslmeier R. Friederich S. Dresely V. Nicklisch N. Pickrell J. K. Sirocko F. Reich D. Cooper A. Alt K.W. Genographic Consortium. (2013). Ancient DNA reveals key stages in the formation of central European mitochondrial genetic diversity. Science342 257–261.

  • Burger J. Kirchner M. Bramanti B. Haak W. Thomas M.G. (2007). Absence of the lactase-persistence-associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA104 3736–3741.

  • Byrne K. M. Byrne P. C. (2004). Review: Other blood group systems – Diego Yt Xg Scianna Dombrock Colton Landsteiner-Wiener and Indian. Immunohematology20 50–58.

  • Carroll T. P. O’Connor C. A. Floyd O. McPartlin J. Kelleher D. P. O’Brien G. Dimitrov B. D. Morris V. B. Taggart C. C. McElvaney N. G. (2011). The prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Ireland. Resp. Res.12 91–98.

  • Cauna N. (1942). Par latviešu asins grupām [On Latvian blood groups]. Ârstniecības žurnāls Nr. 1 254–260 (in Latvian).

  • Cook C. J. (2014). The role of lactase persistence in precolonial development. J. Econ. Growth19 369–406.

  • Česnys G. (1991). Anthropological roots of Lithuanians. Science Arts Lith.1 4–10.

  • Davydenko O. G. Kushniarevich A. I. Sivitskaya L. N. Danilenko N. G. (2007). Ethnogenomics of Belarusians. Preliminary results [Давыденко О. Г. Кушнеревич E. И. Сивицкая Л. Н. Даниленко Н. Г. Этногеномика белорусского народа. Предварительные итоги]. Molecular Appl. Gen. [молекулярная и прикладная ƨенетика] 6 45–78 (in Russian).

  • de Juan D. Reta A. Castiella A. Pozueta J. Prada A. Cuadrado E. (2001). HFE gene mutations analysis in Basque hereditary haemochromatosis patients and controls. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 9 961–964.

  • Denisova R. (1975). Anthropology of Ancient Balts [Денисова Р. A. Антропология древних балтов]. Zinātne Rīga. 400 pp. (in Russian).

  • Denisova R. (1997). Latvijas senākā apdzīvotība [The initial settlement of Latvia]. J. Latv. Hist. Inst. No. 3 5–15 (in Latvian).

  • de Silva E. Stumpf M. P. H. (2004). HIV and the CCR5-Delta32 resistance allele. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 241 1–12.

  • Distante S. Robson K. J. Graham-Campbell J. Arnaiz-Villena A. Brissot P. Worwood M. (2004). The origin and spread of the HFE-C282Y haemochromatosis mutation. Hum. Genet. 115 269–279.

  • Enattah N. S. Sahi T. Savilahti E. Terwilliger J. D. Peltonen L. Järvelä I. (2002). Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Nat. Genet. 30 233–237.

  • Farrell P. M. (2008). The prevalence of cystic fibrosis in the European Union. J. Cystic Fibr.7 450–453.

  • Faure E. Royer-Carenzi M. (2008). Is the European spatial distribution of the HIV-resistant CCR5-32 allele formed by a breakdown of the pathocenosis due to the historical Roman expansion? Infect. Genet. Evol. 8 864–874.

  • Galvani A. P. Novembre J. (2005). The evolutionary history of the CCR5-Delta32 HIV-resistance mutation. Microbes Infect. 7 302–309.

  • Galvani A. P. Slatkin M. (2003). Evaluating plague and smallpox as historical selective pressures for the CCR5-delta 32 HIV-resistance allele. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA100 15276–15279.

  • Gimbutiene (Gimbutas) M. (1994). Balti aizvēsturiskajos laikos [Balts in prehistoric times]. Zinātne Rīga. 226 pp. (in Latvian).

  • Gray R. D. Atkinson Q. D. (2003). Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature 426 435–439.

  • Haak W. Lazaridis I. Patterson N. Rohland N. Mallick S. Llamas B. Brandt G. Nordenfelt S. Harney E. Stewardson K. Fu Q. Mittnik A. Bįnffy E. Economou C. Francken M. Friederich S. Pena R. G. Hallgren F. Khartanovich V. Khokhlov A. Kunst M. Kuznetsov P. Meller H. Mochalov O. Moiseyev V. Nicklisch N. Pichler S. L. Risch R. Rojo Guerra M. A. Roth C. Szécsényi-Nagy A. Wahl J. Meyer M. Krause J. Brown D. Anthony D. Cooper A. Alt K. W. Reich D. (2015). Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature522 (7555) 207–211.

  • Hakulinen L. (1961). The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language. Curzon. 383 pp.

  • Hummel S. Schmidt D. Kremeyer B. Herrmann B. Oppermann M. (2005). Detection of the CCR5-Delta32 HIV resistance gene in Bronze Age skeletons. Genes Immun. 6 371–374.

  • Hutchison D. C. (1998). Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in Europe: Geographical distribution of Pi types S and Z. Resp. Med. 92 367–377.

  • Ilumäe A.-M. Reidla M. Chukhryaeva M. Järve M. Post H. Karmin M. Saag L. Agdzhoyan A. Kushniarevich A. Litvinov S. Ekomasova N. Tambets K. Metspalu E. Khusainova R. Yunusbayev B. Khusnutdinova E. K. Osipova L. P. Fedorova S. Utevska O. Koshel S. Balanovska E. Behar D. M. Balanovsky O. Kivisild T. Underhill P. A. Villems R. Rootsi S. (2016). Human Y chromosome haplogroup N: A non-trivial time-resolved phylogeography that cuts across language families. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 99 163–173.

  • Itan Y. Powell A. Beaumont M. A. Burger J. Thomas M. G. (2009). The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PloS Computational Biology5 e1000491.

  • Ivanova A. von Ahsen N. Adjarov D. Krastev Z. Oellerich M. Wieland E. (1999). C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene are not associated with porphyria cutanea tarda in Bulgaria. Hepatology30 1531–1532.

  • Jones E. R. Zarina G. Moiseyev V. Lightfoot E. Nigst P. R. Manica A. Pinhasi R. Bradley D. G. (2017). The Neolithic transition in the Baltic was not driven by admixture with early European farmers. Curr. Biol.27 576–582.

  • Kalibatiene D. Varvuolyte S. Alekna V. (2006). Investigation of hypolactasia in the elderly. Gerontologija7 136–142.

  • Karmin M. Saag L. Vicente M. Wilson Sayres M. A. Järve M. Talas U. G. Rootsi S. Ilumäe A.-M. Mägi R. Mitt M. Pagani L. Puurand T. Faltyskova Z. Clemente F. Cardona A. Metspalu E. Sahakyan H. Yunusbayev B. Hudjashov G. DeGiorgio M. Loogväli E.-L. Eichstaedt C. Eelmets M. Chaubey G. Tambets K. Litvinov S. Mormina M. Xue Y. Ayub Q. Zoraqi G. Korneliussen T. S. Akhatova F. Lachance J. Tishkoff S. Momynaliev K. Ricaut F.-X. Kusuma P. Razafindrazaka H. Pierron D. Cox M. P. Sultana G. N. N. Willerslev R. Muller C. Westaway M. Lambert D. Skaro V. Kovačevic’ L. Turdikulova S. Dalimova D. Khusainova R. Trofimova N. Akhmetova V. Khidiyatova I. Lichman D. V. Isakova J. Pocheshkhova E. Sabitov Z. Barashkov N. A. Nymadawa P. Mihailov E. Seng J. W. T. Evseeva I. Migliano A. B. Abdullah S. Andriadze G. Primorac D. Atramentova L. Utevska O. Yepiskoposyan L. Marjanović D. Kushniarevich A.. Behar D. M. Gilissen C. Vissers L. Veltman J. A. Balanovska E. Derenko M. Malyarchuk B. Metspalu A. Fedorova S. Eriksson A. Manica A. Mendez F. L. Karafet T. M. Veeramah K. R. Bradman N. Hammer M. F. Osipova L. P. Balanovsky O. Khusnutdinova E. K. Johnsen K. Remm M. Thomas M. G. Tyler-Smith C. Underhill P. A. Willerslev E. Nielsen R. Metspalu M. Villems R. Kivisild T. (2015). A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. Genome Res.25 459–466.

  • Kasperavičiute D. Kučinskas V. Stoneking M. (2004). Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuanians. Ann. Hum. Genet. 68 438–452.

  • Khrunin A. V. Khokhrin D. V. Filippova I. N. Esko T. Nelis M. Bebyakova N. A. Bolotova N. L. Klovins J. Nikitina-Zake L. Rehnström K. Ripattii S. Schreiber S. Franke A. Macek M. Krulišovį V. Lubinski J. Metspalu A. Limborska S. A. (2013). A genome-wide analysis of populations from European Russia reveals a new pole of genetic diversity in northern Europe. PLOS ONE8 e58552.

  • Klitz W. Brautbar C. Schito A. M. Barcellos L. F. Oksenberg J. R. (2001). Evolution of the CCR5 delta 32 mutation based on haplotype variation in Jewish and Northern European population samples. Hum. Immunol.62 530–538.

  • Krūmiņa A. Kroškina V. Keišs J. Mališeva B. Baumanis V. (2001a). Ar hereditāro hemohromatozi saistītās gēna HFE mutācijas Latvijas populācijā [Hereditary haemochromatosis related HFE gene mutations in Latvian population]. In: Scientific Proceedings of Riga Stradiņš University. RSU Rīga pp. 134–138 (in Latvian).

  • Krumina A. Kroshkina V. Krumina L. Svabe V. Krumina Z. Tamane I. Baumanis V. (2001b). Cystic fibrosis mutation dF508 in the Latvian population. Scientific Proceedings of Riga Stradiņš University. RSU Rīga pp. 161–166.

  • Krūmiņa A. Kroškina V. Švābe V. Krūmiņa Z. Lazdiņš M. Baumanis V. (2000). Mukoviscidozi izraisošo mutāciju spektrs Latvijā [Cystic fibrosis mutation spectrum in Latvia]. Scientific Proceedings of Riga Stradiņš University. RSU Rīga pp. 102–105 (in Latvian).

  • Kucinskas L. Juzenas S. Sventoraityte R. Cedaviciute R. Vitkauskiene A. Kalibatas V. Kondrackiene J. Kupcinskas L. (2012). Prevalence of C282Y H63D and S65C mutations in hereditary HFE-hemochromatosis gene in Lithuanian population. Ann. Hematol. 91 491–495.

  • Kučinskas V. (2001). Population genetics of Lithuanians. Ann. Hum. Biol.28 1–14.

  • Kučinskas V. Sistonen P. Beckman L. (1998). The LW (Landsteiner Wiener) blood group system phenotypes and LWb allele frequencies in six Lithuanian ethnolinguistic subgroups. Acta Medica Lituanica4 281–283.

  • Kushniarevich A. Sivitskaya L. Danilenko N. Novogrodskii T. Tsybovsky I. Kiseleva A. Kotova S. Chaubey G. Metspalu E. Sahakyan H. Bahmanimehr A. Reidla M. Rootsi S. Parik J. Reisberg T. Achilli A. Kashani B. H. Gandini F. Olivieri A. Behar D. M. Torroni A. Davydenko O. Villems R. (2013). Uniparental genetic heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of rare Middle Eastern matrilineages with a Central European mitochondrial DNA pool. PloS ONE8 (6) e66499.

  • Kushniarevich A. Utevska O. Chuhryaeva M. Agdzhoyan A. Dibirova K. Uktveryte I. Möls M. Mulahasanovic L. Pshenichnov A. Frolova S. Shanko A. Metspalu E. Reidla M. Tambets K. Tamm E. Koshel S. Zaporozhchenko V. Atramentova L. Kučinskas V. Davidenko O. Goncharova O. Evseeva I. Chumosov M. Pocheshchova E. Yunusbayev B. Khnusnutdinova E. Marjanović D. Rudan P. Rootsi S. Yankovsky N. Endicott P. Kassian A. Dybo A. The genographic Consortium Tyler-Smith C. Balanovska E. Metspalu M. Kivisild T. Villems R. Balanovsky O. (2015). Genetic heritage of the Balto-Slavic speaking populations: A synthesis of autosomal mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data. PloS ONE 10 (9) e0135820.

  • Lace B. Sveger T. Krams A. Cernevska G. Krumina A. (2008). Age of SERPINA1 gene PI Z mutation: Swedish and Latvian population analysis. Ann. Hum. Genet. 72 300–304.

  • Laitinen V. Lahermo P. Sistonen P. Savontaus M.-L. (2002). Y-chromosomal diversity suggests that Baltic males share common Finno-Ugric-speaking forefathers. Hum. Hered. 53 68–78.

  • Laland K. N. Odling-Smee J. Myles S. (2010). How culture shaped the human genome: Bringing genetics and the human sciences together. Nat. Rev. Genet. 11 137–148.

  • Lappalainen T. Laitinen V. Salmela E. Andersen P. Huoponen K. Savontaus M.-L. Lahermo P. (2008). Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region. Ann. Hum. Genet. 72 337–348

  • Lazaridis I. Patterson N. Mittnik A. Renaud G. Mallick S. Kirsanow K. Sudmant P. H. Schraiber J. G. Castellano S. Lipson M. Berger B. Economou C. Bollongino R. Fu Q. Bos K. I. Nordenfelt S. Li H. de Filippo C. Prüfer K. Sawyer S. Posth C. Haak W. Hallgren F. Fornander E. Rohland N. Delsate D. Francken M. Guinet J.-M. Wahl J. Ayodo G. Babiker H. A. Bailliet G. Balanovska E. Balanovsky O. Barrantes R. Bedoya G. Ben-Ami H. Bene J. Berrada F. M. Bravi C. M. Brisighelli F. Busby G. B. J. Cali F. Churnosov M. Cole D. E. C. Corach D. Damba L. van Driem G. Dryomov S. Dugoujon J.-M. Fedorova S. A. Romero I. G. Gubina M. Hammer M. Henn B. M. Hervig T. Hodoglugil U. Jha A. R. Karachanak-Yankova S. Khusainova R. Khusnutdinova E. Kittles R. Kivisild T. Klitz W. Kučinskas V. Kushniarevich A. Laredj L. Litvinov S. Loukidis T. Mahley R. W. Melegh B. Metspalu E. Molina J. Mountain J. Näkkäläjärvi K. Nesheva D. Nyambo T. Osipova L. Parik J. Platonov F. Posukh O. Romano V. Rothhammer F. Rudan I. Ruizbakiev R. Sahakyan H. Sajantila A. Salas A. Starikovskaya E. B. Tarekegn A. Toncheva D. Turdikulova S. Uktveryte I. Utevska O. Vasquez R. Villena M. Voevoda M. Winkler C. Yepiskoposyan L. Zalloua P. Zemunik T. Cooper A. Capelli C. Thomas M. G. Ruiz-Linares A. Tishkoff S. A. Singh L. Thangaraj K. Villems R. Comas D. Sukernik R. Metspalu M. Meyer M. Eichler E. E. Burger J. Slatkin M. Pääbo S. Kelso J. Reich D. Krause J. (2014). Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature513 409–413.

  • Lember M. Torniainen S. Kull M. Kallikorm R. Saadla P. Rajasalu T. Komu H. Järvelä I. (2006). Lactase non-persistence and milk consumption in Estonia. World J. Gastroenterol. 12 7329–7331.

  • Lessig R. Edelmann J. Krawczak M. (2001). Population genetics of Y-chromosomal microsatellites in Baltic males. Forensic Sci. Int.118 153–157.

  • Li J. Z. Absher D. M. Tang H. Southwick A. M. Casto A. M. Ramachandran S. Cann H. M. Barsh G. S. Feldman M. Cavalli-Sforza L. L. Myers R. M. (2008). Worldwide human relationships inferred from genome-wide patterns of variation. Science319 1100–1104.

  • Libert F. Cochaux P. Beckman G. Samson M. Aksenova M. Cao A. Czeizel A. Claustres M. de la Rśa C. Ferrari M. Ferrec C. Glover G. Grinde B. Güran S. Kucinskas V. Lavinha J. Mercier B. Ogur G. Peltonen L. Rosatelli C. Schwartz M. Spitsyn V. Timar L. Beckman L. Parmentier M. Vassart G. (1998). The CCR5 mutation conferring protection against HIV-1 in Caucasian populations has a single and recent origin in Northeastern Europe. Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 399–406.

  • Limborska S. A. Balanovsky O. P. Balanovskaya E. V. Slominsky P. A. Schadrina M. I. Livshits L. A. Kravchenko S. A. Pampuha V. M. Khusnutdinova E. K. Spitsyn V. A. (2002). Analysis of CCR532 geographic distribution and its correlation with some climatic and geographic factors. Hum. Hered. 53 49–54.

  • Loogväli E. L. Roostalu U. Malyarchuk B. A. Derenko M. V. Kivisild T. Metspalu E. Tambets K. Reidla M. Tolk H. V. Parik J. Pennarun E. Laos S. Lunkina A. Golubenko M. Barac L. Pericic M. Balanovsky O. P. Gusar V. Khusnutdinova E. K. Stepanov V. Puzyrev V. Rudan P. Balanovska E. V. Grechanina E. Richard C. Moisan J. P. Chaventre A. Anagnou N. P. Pappa K. I. Michalodimitrakis E. N. Claustres M. Golge M. Mikerezi I. Usanga E. Villems R. (2004). Disuniting uniformity: A pied cladistic canvas of mtDNA haplogroup H in Eurasia. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21 2012–2021.

  • Madry E. Krasinska B. Walkowiak J. Adamczak-Ratajczak H. (2011). Hypolactasia lactose malabsorption lactose intolerance. Family Med. Primary Care Rev.13 334–336.

  • Mališeva B. Tamane I. Krūmiņa L. Kroškina V. Baumanis V. Krūmiņa A. (2002). Alfa 1-antitripsīna nepietiekamības klīnika diagnostika un izplatība Latvijā [Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: Clinical symptoms diagnostics and prevalence in Latvia]. Scientific Proceedings of Riga Stradiņš University. RSU Rīga pp. 167–171 (in Latvian).

  • Malmström H. Gilbert M. T. P. Thomas M. G. Brandström M. Storį J. Molnar P. Andersen P. K. Bendixen C. Holmlund G. Götherström A. Willerslev E. (2009). Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Cuur. Biol.19 1758–1762.

  • Malyarchuk B. Derenko M. Grzybowski T. Lunkina A. Czarny J. Rychkov S. Morozova I. Denisova G. Micicka-Sliwka D. (2004). Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations. Hum. Biol. 76 877–900.

  • Malyarchuk B. Derenko M. Grzybowski T. Perkova M. Rogalla U. Vanecek T. Tsybovsky I. (2010). The peopling of Europe from the mitochondrial haplogroup U5 perspective. PloS ONE5 e10285.

  • Malyarchuk B. A. Grzybowski T. Derenko M. V. Czarny J. Wožniak M. Miścicka-Śliwka D. (2002). Mitochondrial DNA variability in Poles and Russians. Ann. Hum. Genet. 66 261–283.

  • Mathieson I. Roodenberg S. A. Posth C. Szécsényi-Nagy A. Rohland N. Mallick S. Olade I. Broomandkhoshbacht N. Cheronet O. Fernandes D. Ferry M. Gamarra B. Fortes G. G. Haak W. Harney E. Krause-Kyora B. Kucukkalipci I. Michel M. Mittnik A. Nägele K. Novak M. Oppenheimer J. Patterson N. Pfrengle S. Sirak K. Stewardson K. Vai S. Alexandrov S. Alt K. W. Andreescu R. Antonović D. Ash A. Atanassova N. Bacvarov K. Gusztįv M. B. Bocherens H. Bolus M. Boroneanž A. Boyadzhiev Y. Budnik A. Burmaz J. Chohadzhiev S. Conard N. J. Cottiaux R. Čuka M. Cupillard C. Drucker D. G. Elenski N. Francken M. Galabova B. Ganetovski G. Gely B. Hajdu T. Handzhyiska V. Harvati K. Higham T. Iliev S. Janković I. Karavanić I. Kennett D. J. Komšo D. Kozak A. Labuda D. Lari M. Lazar C. Leppek M. Leshtakov K. Vetro D. L. Los D. Lozanov I. Malina M. Martini F. McSweeney K. Meller H. Menšušić M. Mirea P. Moiseyev V. Petrova V. Price T. D. Simalcsik A. Sineo L. Šlaus M. Slavchev V. Stanev P. Starović A. Szeniczey T. Talamo S. Teschler-Nicola M. Thevenet C. Valchev I. Valentin F. Vasilyev S. Veljanovska F. Venelinova S. Veselovskaya E. Viola B. Virag C. Zaninović J. Zäuner S. Stockhammer P. W. Catalano G. Krauß R. Caramelli D. Zariņa G. Gaydarska B. Lillie M.. Nikitin A. G. Potekhina I. Papathanasiou A. Borić D. Bonsall C. Krause J. Pinhasi R. Reich D. (2017). The genomic history of Southeastern Europe. bioRxiv preprint May 9 2017; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/135616.

  • Merryweather-Clarke A. T. Pointon J. J. Shearman J. D. Robson K. J. (1997). Global prevalence of putative haemochromatosis mutations. J. Med. Genet. 34 275–278.

  • Mielnik-Sukorska M. Daca P. Wožniak M. Malyarchuk B.A. Bednarek J. Dobosz T. Grzybowski T. (2013). Genetic data from Y chromosome STR and SNP loci in Ukrainian population. Forensic Sci. Int. Gen.7 200–203.

  • Milman N. Pedersen P. Ovesen L. Melsen G. V. Fenger K. (2004). Frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations of the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) in 2501 ethnic Danes. Ann. Hematol.83 654–657.

  • Mittnik A. Wang C.-C. Pfrengle S. Daubaras M. Zarina G. Hallgren F. Allmäe R. Khartanovich V. Moiseyev V. Furtwängler A. Valtueńa A. A. Feldman M. Economou C. Oinonen M. Vasks A. Törv M. Balanovsky O. Reich D. Jankauskas R. Haak W. Schiffels S. Krause J. (2017). The genetic history of Northern Europe. bioRxiv preprint Mar.3 2017; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/113241.

  • Mittnik A. Wang C.-C. Pfrengle S. Daubaras M. Zarina G. Hallgren F. Allmäe R. Khartanovich V. Moiseyev V. Törv M. Furtwängler A. Valtueńa A. A. Feldman M. Economou C. Oinonen M. Vasks A. Balanovska E. Reich D. Jankauskas R. Haak W. Schiffels S. Krause J. (2017b). The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region (in press).

  • Mosse N. I. Mosse K. A. (2005). Prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in Belarus. Proc. Belarusian Acad. Sci. Medical Sciences No. 2 112–117.

  • Nelis M. Esko T. Mägi R. Zimprich F. Toncheva D. Karachanak S. Piskįčkovį T. Balaščįk I. Peltonen L. Jakkula E. Rehnström K. Lathrop M. Heath S. Galan P. Schreiber S. Meitinger T. Pfeufer A. Wichmann H.-E. Melegh B. Polgįr N. Toniolo D. Gasparini P. D’Adamo P. Klovins J. Nikitina-Zake L. Kučinskas V. Kasnauskienė J. Lubinski J. Debniak T. Limborska S. Khrunin A. Estivill X. Rabionet R. Marsal S. Juliá A. Antonarakis S. E. Deutsch S. Borel C. Attar H. Gagnebin M. Macek M. Krawczak M. Remm M. Metspalu A. (2009). Genetic structure of Europeans: a view from the North-East. PloS One4 (5) e5472.

  • Novotna P. Blažek V. (2007). Glottochronology and its application to the Balto-Slavic languages. Baltistica42 323–346.

  • Pagani L. Lawson D. J. Jagoda E. Mörseburg A. Eriksson A. Mitt M. Clemente F. Hudjashov G. DeGiorgio M. Saag L. Wall J. D. Cardona A. Mägi R.Wilson Sayres M. A. Kaewert S. Inchley C. Scheib C. L. Järve M. Karmin M. Jacobs G. S. Antao T. Iliescu F. M. Kushniarevich A. Ayub Q.Tyler-Smith C. Xue Y. Yunusbayev B. Tambets K. Mallick C. B. Saag L. Pocheshkhova E. Andriadze G. Muller C.. Westaway M. C. Lambert D. M. Zoraqi G. Turdikulova S. Dalimova D. Sabitov Z. Sultana G. N. N. Lachance J. Tishkoff S. Momynaliev K. Isakova J. Damba L. D. Gubina M. Nymadawa P. Evseeva I. Atramentova L. Utevska O. Ricaut F.-X. Brucato N. Sudoyo H. Letellier T. Cox M. P. Barashkov N. A. Škaro V. Mulahasanovic’ L. Primorac D. Sahakyan H. Mormin M. Eichstaedt C. A. Lichman D. V. Abdullah S. Chaubey G. Wee J. T. S. Mihailov E. Karunas A. Litvinov S. Khusainova R. Ekomasova N. Akhmetova V. Khidiyatova I. Marjanović D. Yepiskoposyan L. Behar D. M. Balanovska E. Metspalu A. Derenko M. Malyarchuk B. Voevoda M. Fedorova S. A. Osipova L. P. Lahr M. M. Gerbault P. Leavesley M. Migliano A. B. Petraglia M. Balanovsky O. Khusnutdinova E. K. Metspalu E. Thomas M. G. Manica A. Nielsen R. Villems R. Willerslev E. Kivisild T. Metspalu M. (2016). Genomic analyses inform on migration events during the peopling of Eurasia. Nature538 238–242.

  • Pampukha V. M. Rozumenko V. D. Cherchenko A. P. Livshits L. A. (2003). Analysis of C282Y and H63D mutations of the hereditary haemochromatosis gene HFE among the Ukrainian population and patients with brain glial tumor. Biopolymers Cell19 536–540.

  • Pliss L. (2007). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its role in ethnogenesis of Latvians. Doctoral dissertation University of Latvia.

  • Pliss L. Tambets K. Loogväli E.-L. Pronina N. Lazdins M. Krumina A. Baumanis V. Villems R. (2006). Mitochondrial DNA portrait of Latvians: Towards the understanding of the genetic structure of Baltic-speaking populations. Ann. Hum. Genet. 70 439–458.

  • Pliss L. Timša L. Rootsi S. Tambets K. Pelnena I. Zole E. Puzuka A. Sabule A. Rozane S. Lace B. Kucinskas V. Krumina A. Ranka R. Baumanis V. (2015). Y-chromosomal lineages of Latvians in the context of the genetic variation of the Eastern-Baltic region. Ann. Hum. Genet.79 418–430.

  • Posth C. Renaud G. Mittnik A. Drucker D. G. Rougier H. Cupillard C. Valentin F. Thevenet C. Furtwängler A. Wißing C. Francken M. Malina M. Bolus M. Lari M. Gigli E. Capecchi G. Crevecoeur I. Beauval C. Flas D. Germonpré M. van der Plicht J. Cottiaux R. Gély B. Ronchitelli A. Wehrberger K. Grigorescu D. Svoboda J. Semal P. CaramelliD. Bocherens H. Harvati K. Conard N. J. Haak W. Powell A. Krause J. (2016). Pleistocene mitochondrial genomes suggest a single major dispersal of non-Africans and a Late Glacial population turnover in Europe. Curr. Biol. 26 827–833.

  • Prīmanis J. (1937). Latviešu antropoloģiskais raksturojums [Anthropological Characterization of the Latvians]. Valtera un Rapas akc. sab.apgāds Rīga. 40 lpp. (in Latvian).

  • Proņina N. Lugovska R. (2011). Association between minihaplotypes and mutations at the phenylalanine hydroxylase locus in Latvian phenylketonuria patients. Proceed. Latv. Acad. Sci. Section B65 (3/4) 73–79.

  • Purina G. Lugovska R. Sokolova L. (1995). Medical genetical service in Latvia: Developmental trends. Proceed. Latv. Acad. Sci. No. 5/6 5–8.

  • Radiņš A. (2012). Arheoloģisks ceļvedis latviešu un Latvijas vēsturē [Archaeological Guide in the History of Latvians and Latvia]. Apgāds Neputns Rīga. 415 lpp. (in Latvian).

  • Rebala K. Martinez-Cruz B. Tönjes A. Kovacs P. Stumvoll M. Lindner I. Büttner A. Wichmann H.-E. Siváková D. Soták M. Quintana-Murci L. Szczerkowska Z. Comas D. Genographic Consortium (2012). Contemporary paternal genetic landscape of Polish and German populations: From early medieval Slavic expansion to post-World War II resettlements. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 21 415–422.

  • Richards M. Corte-Real H. Forster P. Macaulay V. Wilkinson-Herbots H. Demaine A. Papiha S. Hedges R. Bandelt H.-J. Sykes B. (1996). Paleolithic and neolithic lineages in the European mitochondrial gene pool. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 59 185–203.

  • Rimantiene R. (1996). Akmens amžius Lietuvoje [The Stone Age in Lithuania]. 2nd edn. Vilnius Žiburio leidykla (in Lithuanian).

  • Rosser Z. H. Zerjal T. Hurles M. E. Adojaan M. Alavantic D. Amorim A. Amos W. Armenteros M. Arroyo E. Barbujani G. Beckman G. Beckman L. Bertranpetit J. Bosch E. Bradley D. G. Brede G. Cooper G. Corte-Real H. B. de Knijff P. Decorte R. Dubrova Y. E. Evgrafov O. Gilissen A. Glisic S. Golge M. Hill E. W. Jeziorowska A. Kalaydjieva L. Kayser M. Kivisild T. Kravchenko S. A. Krumina A. Kučinskas V. Lavinha J. Livshits L. A. Malaspina P. Maria S. McElreavey K. Meitinger T. A. Mikelsaar A. V. Mitchell R. J. Nafa K. Nicholson J. Norby S. Pandya A. Parik J. Patsalis P. C. Pereira L. Peterlin B. Pielberg G. Prata M. J. Previderė C. Roewer L. Rootsi S. Rubinsztein D. C. Saillard J. Santos F. R. Stefanescu G. Sykes B. C. Tolun A. Villems R. Tyler-Smith C. Jobling M. A. (2000). Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography rather than by language. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 67 1526–1543.

  • Saag L. Varul L. Scheib C. L. Stenderup J. Allentoft M. E. Saag L. Pagani L. Reidla M. Tambets K. Metspalu E. Kriiska A. Willerslev E. Kivisild T. Metspalu M. (2017). Extensive farming in Estonia started through a sex-biased migration from the Steppe. Curr. Biol.27 2185–2193.

  • Sajantila A. Lahermo P. Anttinen T. Lukka M. Sistonen P. Savontaus M. L. Aula P. Beckman L. Tranebjaerg L. Gedde-Dahl T. Issel-Tarver L. DiRienzo A. Paabo S. (1995). Genes and languages in Europe: An analysis of mitochondrial lineages. Genome Res. 5 42–52.

  • Scrimshaw N. Murray E. (1988). The acceptability of milk and milk products in populations with a high prevalence of lactose intolerance. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr. 48 1079–1159.

  • Sedovs V. (2004). Balti senatnē [Balts in Ancient Times]. 2nd ed. Latvijas Vēstures Institūta apgāds Rīga. 165 lpp. (in Latvian).

  • Seixas S. Garcia O. Trovoada M. J. Santos M. T. Amorim A. Rosha J. (2001). Patterns of haplotype diversity within the serpin gene cluster at 14q32.1: Insights into the natural history of the alpha 1-antitrypsin polymorphism. Hum. Genet. 108 20–30.

  • Sistonen P. Virtaranta-Knowles K. Denisova R. Kucinskas V. Ambrasiene D. Beckman L. (1999). The LWb blood group as a marker of pre-historic Baltic migrations and admixture. Hum. Hered. 49 154–158.

  • Sivitskaya L. Danilenko N. Zabarouskaya Z. Davydenko O. (2013). HFE gene mutation associated with the severity of gestational diabetes mellitus in Belarusian women. Open J. Endocr. Metab. Dis. 3 13–17.

  • Skoglund P. Malmström H. Raghavan M. Storå J. Hall P. Willerslev E. Gilbert M. T. Götherström A. Jakobsson M. (2012). Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. Science336 466–469.

  • Slatkin M. (2001). Simulating genealogies of selected alleles in a population of variable size. Genet. Res. 78 49–57.

  • Smith G. D. Lawlor D. A. Timpson N. J. Baban J. Kiessling M. Day I. N. M. Ebrahim S. (2009). Lactase persistence-related genetic variant: Population substructure and health outcomes. Eur. J. Hum. Gen. 17 357–367.

  • Srivastava K. Almarry N. S. Flegel W. A. (2014). Genetic variation of the whole ICAM4 gene in Caucasians and African Americans. Transfusion54 2315–2324.

  • Stepanova A. A. Krasovsky S. A. Polyakov A. V. (2016). Reliability of the search for 19 common mutations in the CFTR gene in Russian cystic fibrosis patients and the calculated frequency of the disease in Russian Federation. Rus. J. Genet. 52 204–-213.

  • Stephens J. C. Reich D. E. Goldstein D. B. Shin H. D. Smith M. W. Carrington M. Winkler C. Huttley G. Allikmets R. Schriml L. Gerrard B. Malasky M. Ramos M. D. Morlot S. Tzetis M. Oddoux C. Giovine F. S. Nasioulas G. Chandler D. Aseev M. Hanson M. Kalaydjieva L. Glavac D. Gasparini P. Kanavakis E. Claustres M. Kambouris M. Ostrer H. Duff G. Baranov V. Sibul H. Metspalu A. Goldman D. Martin N. Duffy D. Schmidtke J. Estivill X. O’Brien S. J. Dean M. (1998). Dating the origin of the CCR5-Delta 32 AIDS-resistance allele by the coalescence of haplotypes. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 62 1507–1515.

  • Stumpf M. P.Wilkinson-Herbots H. M. (2004). Allelic histories: Positive selection on a HIV-resistance allele. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19 166–168.

  • Tambets K. Rootsi S. Kivisild T. Help H. Serk P. Loogväli E.-L. Tolk H.-V. Reidla M. Metspalu E. Pliss L. Balanovsky O. Pshenichnov A. Balanovska E. Gubina M. Zhadanov S. Osipova L. Damba L. Voevoda M. Kutuev I. Bermisheva M. Khusnutdinova E. Gusar V. Grechanina E. Parik J. Pennarun E. Richard C. Chaventre A. Moisan J.-P. Barać L. Peričić M. Rudan P. Terzić R. Mikerezi I. Krumina A. Baumanis V. Koziel S. Rickards O. De Stefano G. F. Anagnou N. Pappa K. I. Michalodimitrakis E. Ferįk V. Füredi S. Komel R. Beckman L. Villems R. (2004). The Western and Eastern roots of the Saami — the story of genetic “outliers” told by mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes. Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 74 661–682.

  • Tighe O. Dunican D. O’Neill C. Bertorelle G. Beattie D. Graham C. Zschocke J. Cali F. Romano V. Hrabincova E. Kozak L. Nechyporenko M. Livshits L. Guldberg P. Jurkowska M. Zekanowski C. Perez B. Desviat L. R. Ugarte M. Kucinskas V. Knappskog P. Treacy E. Naughten E. Tyfield L. Byck S. Scriver C. R. Mayne P. D. Croke D. T. (2003). Genetic diversity within the R408W Phenylketonuria mutation lineages in Europe. Hum. Mutat. 21 387–393.

  • Torroni A. Achilli A. Macalay V. Richards M. Bandelt H. J. Harvesting the fruit of the human mtDNA tree. Trends Genet. 22 (6) 339–345.

  • Underhill P. A. Myres N. M. Rootsi S. Metspalu M. Zhivotovsky L. A. King R. J. Lin A. A. Chow C. E. Semino O. Battaglia V. Kutuev I. Järve M. Chaubey G. Ayub Q. Mohyuddin A. Mehdi S. Q. Sengupta S. Rogaev E. I. Khusnutdinova E. K. Pshenichnov A. Balanovsky O. Balanovska E. Jeran N. Augustin D. H. Baldovic M. Herrera R. J. Thangaraj K. Singh V. Singh L. Majumder P. Rudan P. Primorac D. Villems R. Kivisild T. (2010). Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 18 479–484.

  • Underhill P. A. Poznik G. D. Rootsi S. Järve M. Lin A. A. Wang J. Passarelli B. Kanbar J. Myres N. M. King R. J. di Cristofaro J. Sahakyan H. Behar D. M. Kushniarevich A. Šarac J. Šaric T. Rudan P. Pathak A. K. Chaubey G. Grugni V. Semino O. Yepiskoposyan L. Bahmanimehr A. Farjadian S. Balanovsky O. Khusnutdinova E. K. Herrera R. J. Chiaroni J. Bustamante C. D. Quake S. R. KivisildT. Villems R. (2015). The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 23 124–131.

  • Vasks A. Vaska B. Gravere R. (1997). Latvijas aizvēsture [The Prehistory of Latvia]. Zvaigzne ABC Rīga 223 lpp. (in Latvian).

  • Voicu P. M. Cojocariu C. Petrescu-Danila E. Covic M. Stanciu C. Rusu M. (2009). Prevalence of HFE (hemachromatosis) gene mutations C282Y and H63D in Romanian population. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 42 14–15.

  • Vuorisalo T. Arjamaa O. Vasemägi A. Taavitsainen J.-P. Tourunen A. Saloniemi I. (2012). High lactose tolerance in North Europeans: A result of migration not in situ milk consumption. Persp. Biol. Med. 55 163–174.

  • Williams R. A. Mamotte C. D. S. Burnett J. R. (2008). Phenylketonuria: An inborn error of phenylalanine metabolism. Clin. Biochem. 29 31–41.

  • World Health Organization. The molecular genetic epidemiology of cystic fibrosis. Available at: www.who.int/genomics/publications/en/HGN_WB_04.02_report.pdf

  • Zagorska I. (2012). Senie ziemeïbriežu mednieki Latvijā [The Ancient Reindeer Hunters in Latvia]. Zinātne Rīga. 206 lpp. (in Latvian).

  • Zerjal T. Beckman L. Beckman G. Mikelsaar A.-V. Krumina A. Kučinskas V. Hurles M. E. Tyler-Smith C. (2001). Geographical linguistic and cultural influences on genetic diversity: Y-chromosomal distribution in Northern European populations. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18 1077–1087.

  • 1000 genomes browser: phase3browser.1000genomes.org (accessed 15.12.2017).

  • dbSNP database: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/ (accessed 15.12.2017).

  • Ensembl database: https://www.ensembl.org (accessed 15.12.2017).

  • ExAc database: exac.broadinstitute.org/ (accessed 15.12.2017).

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance of man: https://www.omim.org (accessed 15.12.2017).

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.192

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 1243 925 46
PDF Downloads 925 716 58