Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on the Quality of Protein Bread

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Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05) effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

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