Milk and dairy products are studied as alternative iodine sources, because salt iodisation is controversial due to high salt consumption leading to cardiovascular diseases. However, the iodine concentration in milk markedly varies. This study evaluated the iodine concentration in cow’s milk available in the Latvian market. Iodine and fat concentration was analysed with a spectrophotometer “Varian Cary 50” based ISO 2446:2008 in 20 milk samples. Data from the Central Statistical Bureau and survey among pregnant women were used to analyse milk product consumption and its impact on iodine status. Average iodine concentration in milk samples was 457.6 (179.6) μg/L, winter samples had a higher concentration of iodine than summer samples: 563.4 (329.6) μg/L and 469.2 (162.0) μg/L, but this is not statistically significant p < 0.05. Iodine concentration in skimmed milk was 490 μg/L, milk with the reduced fat content 501.7 (174.8) μg/L, and whole milk — 422.6 (192.1)1 μg/L. Milk consumption decreased from 2002 to 2014, while yogurt and cheese consumption increased. Higher consumption of milk and milk products was related to higher urinary iodine concentration ρ = 0.115; p = 0.003. Milk and milk products are an important iodine source in Latvia and their consumption should be promoted.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Allen L. de Benoist B. Dary O. Hurrell R. (eds.). (2006). Guidelines on Food Fortification with Micronutrients. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (WHO/FAO). 341 pp.
Anonymous (2014). Sodium intake for adults and children. WHO. Available from: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/sodium_intake/en/ (accessed 2016 April 18).
Bath S. C. Walter A. Taylor A. (2014). Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: The influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status. Brit. J. Nutr.111 (9) 1622–1631.
Brzoska F. Szybinski Z. Sliwinski B. (2009). Iodine concentration in Polish milk — variations due to season and region. Endokrynol. Pol.60 (6) 449–454.
Dahl L. Opsahl J. A. Meltzer H. M. Julshamn K. (2003). Iodine concentration in Norwegian milk and dairy products. Brit. J. Nutr.90 (3) 679–685.
Flachowsky G. Franke K. Meyer U. Leiterer M. Schöne F. (2013). Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk. Eur. J. Nutr.53 (2) 351–365.
Grinberga S. Dambrova M. Latkovskis G. Strele I. Konrade I. Hartmane D. Sevostjanovs E. Liepinsh E. Pugovics O. (2015). Determination of trimethylamine-N-oxide in combination with Lcarnitine and γ-butyrobetaine in human plasma by UPLC/MS/MS. Biomed. Chromatogr. 29 (11) 1670–1674.
Hernando V. U. Anilza B. P. Hernan S. T. C. (2015). Iodine deficiency disorders. J. Thyroid Disorders Ther.172 (4) doi:10.4172/2167-7948.1000172.
Hollowell J. G. Staehling N. W. Hannon W. H. Flanders D. W. Gunter E. W. Maberly G. F. Braverman L. E. Pino S. Miller D. T. Garbe P. L. DeLozier D. M. Jackson R. J. (1998). Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public health implications: Iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys I and III (1971–1974 and 1988–1994). J. Clin. Endocrinol Metab.83 (10) 3401–3408.
Kohler M. Fechner A. Leiterer M. Sport K. Remer T. Schafer U. Jahreis G. (2012). Iodine content in milk from German cows and in human milk: New monitoring study. Trace Elem. Electrolytes29 (2) 119–126.
Konrade I. Kalere I. Strele I. Makrecka-Kuka M. Jekabsone A. Tetere E. Veisa V. Gavars D. Rezeberga D. Pīrāgs V. Lejnieks A. Dambrova M. (2015). Iodine deficiency during pregnancy: A national cross-sectional survey in Latvia. Public Health Nutr.18 (16) 2990–2997.
Konrade I. Neimane L. Makrecka M. Strele I. Liepinsh E. Lejnieks A. Vevere P. Gruntmanis U. Pīrāgs V. Dambrova M. (2014). A cross-sectional survey of urinary iodine statuss in Latvia. Medicina (Kaunas)50 (2) 124–129.
Lamand M. Tressol J. C. (1992). Contribution of milk to iodine intake in France. Biol. Trace Elem. Res.32 245–251.
Marchioni E. Fumarola A. Calvanese A. (2008). Iodine deficiency in pregnant women residing in an area with adequate iodine intake. Nutrition24 (5) 458–461.
Payling L. M. Juniper D. T. Drake C. Rymer C. Givens D. I. (2015). Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: Implications for nutrition. Food Chem.178 327–330.
Pearce E. N. Pino S. He X. Bazrafshan H. R. Lee S. L. Braverman L. E. (2004). Sources of dietary iodine: Bread cows’ milk and infant formula in the Boston area. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.89 (7) 3421–3424.
Pessah-Pollack R. Eschler D. C. Pozharny Z. Davies T. (2014). Apparent insufficiency of iodine supplementation in pregnancy. J. Women’s Health23 (1) 51–56.
Pennington J. A. T. (1990). Iodine concentrations in US milk: Variation due to time season and region. J. Diary Sci.73 (12) 3421–3427.
Phillips D. I. (1997). Iodine milk and the elimination of endemic goitre in Britain: The story of an accidental public health triumph. J. Epidemiol. Community Health51 (4) 391–393.
Rasmussen L. B. Larsen E. H. Ovesen L. (2000). Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr.54 (1) 57–60.
Selga G. Sauka M. Gerasimov G. (2000). Status of iodine deficiency in Latvia reconsidered: Results of nation-wide survey of 587 schoolchildren in the year 2000. IDD (Iodine Deficiency Disorders) Newsletter16 54.
Soriguer F. Gutierrez-Repiso C. Gonzalez-Romero S. Oliveira G. Garriga M. J. Velasco I. Santiago P. Escobar G. M. Garcia-Fuentes E. (2011). Iodine concentration in cow’s milk and its relation with urinary iodine concentrations in the population. Clin. Nutr.30 (1) 44–48.
Zimmermann M. B. Jooste P. L. Pandav C. S. (2008). Iodine deficiency disorders. Lancet372 1251–1262.