The aims of this study were to describe job-specific factors and prevalence of musculoskeletal pains (MSPs) by the occupation and body regions in the past 12 months and past month, to analyse multisite and disabling pain and sick leave among office workers (OW), nurses and caregivers (CG); and to find relationships between the observed indicators. The study groups were selected by random sample method. Questionnaire responses on demographic parameters, job-specific factors, and MSPs by body parts in the past 12 months (MSP-12) and past month (MSP-1) were analysed. A questionnaire was sent to 1291 participants. The response rate was 54%. Most of the participants were women, with mean age 41.2 (±11.5) years, working on average 42.8 (±6.7) hours per week and had service length more than five years. Repetitive movements of wrist/hands and working under time pressure were more often reported risk factors by the nurses. Lifting weights 25 kg and more, climbing up and down, kneeling more than one hour a day and piecework finished in the work shift were the most often reported job-related risk factors for the CGs. Use of a keyboard was the same frequent work-related risk factor for the OWs. The most prevalent MSP-12 was low back pain for CGs (66.3%) and nurses (56.1%) and neck pain for OWs (51.5%). The most often reported MSP-1 was shoulder pain for nurses and OWs (84.4% and 65.7%, correspondingly), and elbow pain for CGs (74.9%). In the the entire sampled group, low back pain (53.9%) in the past 12 months and shoulder pain (70.9%) in the past month were the most often reported pain regions. A higher prevalence of multiple and disabling MSP and sickness absence were reported by CGs, compared to other occupation groups (p < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed positive relationships between job-related risk factors, like repetitive movements, physical load, and time demands, and MSPs and sick leave, especially among CGs (p < 0.05). Job-specific factors need more attention to prevent multiple and disabling pain and sick leave among office and hospital workers.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Alexopoulos E. C. Burdorf A. Kalokerinou A. (2003). Risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders amongst nursing personnel in Greek hospitals. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health76 289–294.
Anonymous (2009). Results from the Labour Force Survey 2007 ad hoc module on accidents at work and work-related health problems. Population and social conditions. Statistics in Focus 63/2009.
Anonymous (2013). Occupational Health and Safety Act [Töötervishoiu ja tööohutuse seadus]. Riigi Teataja I 1999 60 616; 26.07.1999; Riigi Teataja I 06.07.2012 60; 01.04.2013. Available at: https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/106072012060?leiaKehtiv (accessed 30 September 2016) (in Estonian).
Anonymous (2015). Annual review of Estonian working conditions. Labour Inspectorate. Available at: http://www.ti.ee/est/meedia-truekised-statistika/statistika/toeoekeskkonnauelevaated/2015/ (accessed 30 September 2016).
Anonymous (2016). Occupational diseases and work-related illnesses in 2015 (Kutsehaigestumine ja tööst põhjustatud haigestumine 2015. aastal). Available at: http://www.terviseamet.ee/tervishoid/toeoetervishoid/aruanded.html (accessed 21 June 2016).
Choobineh A. Movahed M. Tabatabaie S. H. Kumashiro M. (2010). Perceived demands and musculoskeletal disorders in operating room nurses in Shiraz City Hospitals. Industrial Health48 74–84.
Coggon D. Ntani G. Palmer K. T. Felli V. E. Harari R. Barrero L. H. Felknor S. A. Gimeno D. Cattrell A. Serra C. Bonzini M. Solidaki E. Merisalu E. Habib R. R. Sadeghian F. Kadir M. Warnakulasuriya S. S. Matsudaira K. Nyantumbu B. Sim M. R. Harcombe H. Cox K. Marziale M. H. Sarquis L. M. Harari F. Freire R. Harari N. Monroy M. V. Quintana L.A. Rojas M. Salazar Vega E. J. Harris E. C. Vargas-Prada S. Martinez J. M. Delclos G. Benavides F. G. Carugno M. Ferrario M. M. Pesatori A. C. Chatzi L. Bitsios P. Kogevinas M. Oha K. Sirk T. Sadeghian A. Peiris-John R. J. Sathiakumar N. Wickremasinghe A. R. Yoshimura N. Kielkowski D. Kelsall H. L. Hoe V. C. Urquhart D. M. Derett S. McBride D. Gray A. (2012). The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study: Methods of data collection and characteristics of study sample. PLoS One7 (7) e39820.
Coggon D. Ntani G. Palmer K. T. Felli V. E. Harari R. Barrero L. H. Felknor S. A. Gimeno D. Cattrell A. Serra C. Bonzini M. Solidaki E. Merisalu E. Habib R. R. Sadeghian F. Masood K. M. Warnakulasuriya S. S. Matsudaira K. Nyantumbu B. Sim M. R. Harcombe H. Cox K. Marziale M. H. Sarquis L. M. Harari F. Freire R. Harari N. Monroy M. V. Quintana L. A. Rojas M. Salazar Vega E. J. Harris E. C. Vargas-Prada S. Martinez J. M. Delclos G. Benavides F. G. Carugno M. Ferrario MM Pesatori AC Chatzi L Bitsios P Kogevinas M Oha K Sirk T Sadeghian A. Peiris-John R. J. Sathiakumar N. Wickremasinghe A. R. Yoshimura N. Kelsall H. L. Hoe V. C. Urquhart D. M. Derrett S. McBride D. Herbison P. Gray A. (2013). Disabling musculoskeletal pain in working populations: Is it the job the person or the culture? Pain154 (6) 856–863.
Harcombe H. McBridge D. (2009). Prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal disorders in New Zealand nurse postal workers and office workers. Austral. New Zealand J. Publ. Health33 (5) 437–441.
Harcombe H. McBride D. Derrett S. Gray A. (2010). Physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in New Zealand nurses postal workers and office workers. Inj. Prev.16 96–100.
Juul-Kristensen B. Jensen C. (2005). Self-reported workplace related ergonomic conditions as prognostic factors for musculoskeletal symptoms: the “BIT” follow-up study on office workers. Occup. Environ. Med.62 (3) 188–194.
Klussmann A. Gebhardt H. Liebers F. Rieger M. A. (2008). Musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper extremities and the neck: A cross-sectional study on prevalence and symptom-predicting factors at visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders9 96.
Lang J. Ochsmann E. Kraus T. Lang J. W. B. (2012). Psychosocial work stressors as antecedents of musculoskeletal problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis of stability-adjusted longitudinal studies. Soc. Sci. Med.75 1163–1174.
Luime J. J. Kuiper J. I. Koes B. W. Verhaar J. A. N. Miedema H. S. Burdorf A. (2004). Work-related risk factors for the incidence and recurrence of shoulder and neck complaints among nursing-home and elderly-care workers. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health30 (4) 279–286
Matsudaira K. Palmer K. T. Reading I. Hirai M. Yoshimura N. Coggon D. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of regional pain and associated disability in Japanese workers. Occup. Environ. Med.68 191–196.
Ortiz-Hernández L. Tamez-González S. Martínez-Alcántara S. Méndez-Ramírez I. (2003). Computer use increases the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among newspaper office workers. Arch. Med. Res.34 331–342.
Sillanpää J. Huikko S. Nyberg M. Kivi P. Laippala P. Uitti J. (2003). Effect of work with visual display units on musculo-skeletal disorders in the office environment. Occupat. Med.53 443–451.
Smith D. R. Choe M. A. Jeon M. Y. Chae Y. R. An G. J. Jeong J. S. (2005). Epidemiology of musculoskeletal symptoms amongst Korean hospital nurses. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon.4 431–440.
Smith D. R. Leggat P. A. (2004). Musculoskeletal disorders among rural Australian nursing students. Aust. J. Rural Health12 (6) 241–245.
Smith D. R. Mihashi M. Adachi Y. Koga H. Ishitake T. (2006). A detailed analysis of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors among Japanese nurses. J. Safe Res.37 195–200.
Solidaki E. Chatzi L. Bistios P. Markatzi I. Plana E. Castro F. Palmer K. T. Coggon D. Kogevinas M. (2010). Work related and psychosocial determinants of multisite musculoskeletal pain. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health36 (1) 54–61.
Surawera I. K. Hoe V. C. W. Kalsall H. L. Urquhart D. M. Sim M. R. (2013). Physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain among Australian hospital-based nurses. Inj. Prev.19 13–18.
Trinkoff A. M. Lipscomb J. A. Geiger-Brown J. Brady B. (2002). Musculoskeletal problems of the neck shoulder and back and functional consequences in nurses. Amer. J. Ind. Med.41 170–178.
Woods V. (2005) Musculoskeletal disorders and visual strain in intensive data processing workers. Occupat. Med.55 121–127.