Kidney transplant recipients have higher incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related malignancies, but studies on the natural history of HPV infection are insufficient, especially regarding in male recipients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection after kidney allograft transplantation in male recipients: to estimate frequency and activity of HR-HPV infection under immune system suppression. Twenty male renal recipients (age 20 - 68) were enrolled in this investigation and examined in dynamics. Peripheral EDTA-blood samples and urine samples were collected from each patient 2 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with consensus primers was used for initial detection of high range HPV types, a commercial qPCR kit for detection of HR-HPV load in urine samples and ELISA for detection of serum IgG class antibodies to HR-HPV L1-capsid protein. Overall, combining molecular (HR-HPV genomic sequences detected by real-time PCR) and serological studies (IgG class antibodies to HR-HPV L1-capsids’ protein), high frequency of HRHPV infection among male kidney transplant recipients (9/20; 45%) was showed. However, the majority of HR-HPV positive recipients (7/9; 78%) showed signs of infection clearance. It means that, despite the applied immune suppressive therapy, the host’s immune system is capable of dealing with HR-HPV infection up to the 12th month after transplantation. However, the sample size should be increased to enable through statistical analysis before final conclusions are made.
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