Autoantibodies most commonly found in association with neuropathies are those against the ganglioside family antigens - GM1, GQ1b, asialo-GM1, GM2, GD1a, and GD1b. The major diagnostic role is set for two of antibodies - anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the status of antiganglioside antibodies in patients with possible autoimmune neuropathy. The study included 85 patients tested for antiganglioside antibodies during their hospitalization. Clinical information such as demographic data and antecedent illness was collected for all patients, and paraclinical studies including results from cerebrospinal fluid and neuroelectrophysiological examination were analyzed. In our study, a total of 27 patients (32%) were found positive for at least one antiganglioside antibody. The most commonly found antibodies were against asialoGM1 (n=13) and GM1 (n=10) gangliosides. Eight patients were diagnosed with a disease where antiganglioside antibodies are used as a diagnostic marker: five patients - Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 1 patient - Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), two patients - multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Three out of five patients diagnosed with GBS and one of two patients diagnosed with MMN were seronegative. The acute course of disease, positive antiganglioside antibodies and cytoalbuminologic dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid-induced patients is preference for a specific immune therapy. The results of our study support the previously described immunological association between antiganglioside antibodies and GBS, MFS, and MMN.
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