Determination of Bioactive Compounds and Mineral Substances in Latvian Birch and Maple Saps

Open access


Birch and maple saps contain carbohydrates and organic acids, B complex vitamins and vitamin C, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides and mineral substances. The aim of the study was to quantitatively determine the concentrations of bioactive compounds and mineral substances in Latvian birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and maple (Acer platanoides L.) saps. Electrical conductivity was determined (629 and 967 S/cm in birch and maple saps, respectively) to characterise the total amount of mineral substances. In birch and maple saps the titratable acidity (0.50 and 0.70 mmol of NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) and formol number (0.25 and 0.20 mmol NaOH per litre of sap, respectively) were determined. The protein concentration was found to be higher in maple sap (171 and 127 mg/l, respectively). The antioxidant concentration, determined using quercetin as a standard, was 0.35 mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/l in birch sap and 0.77 mg QE/l in maple sap. In conclusion, Latvian maple sap contains more bioactive and mineral compounds than birch sap. Latvian birch sap contains up to 20% more glucose and fructose than birch sap produced in Finland, but Latvian maple sap contains 10 to 40% less sucrose than sap produced in North America.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Abou-Zaid M. M. Nozzolillo C. Tonon A. Coppens M. Lombardo A. (2008). High-performance liquid chromatography and identification of aantioxidant polyphenols in maple syrup. Pharm. Biol.46 (1-2) 117-125.

  • Ahtonen S. Kallio H. (1989). Identification and seasonal variations of amino acids in birch sap used for syrup production. Food Chem.33 (2) 125-132.

  • Deslauriers I. (2000). Recovery Separation and Characterization of PhenolicCompounds and Flavonoids from Maple Products. Montreal Quebec: McGill University. 104 pp.

  • Drozdova G. Demurov E. Bakhilov V. Frolov V. (1995). Some aspects of pharmacological activity of birch sap and birch drag-preparations. In: Terazawa M. (Ed.). Tree Sap (pp. 85-89). Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press.

  • Gaucher C. Gougeon S. Mauffette Y Messier C. (2003). Seasonal variation in biomass and carbohydrate partitioning of understory sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) seedlings. TreePhysiol. 25 93-100.

  • González-Sarrías A. Li L. Seeram N.P. (2012). Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells. Phytother. Res.26 (7) 995-1002.

  • Harju L. Hulden S. G. (1990). Birch sap as a tool for biogeochemical prospecting: [about micro and macro elements]. J. Geochem. Explor. 37 (3) 351-365.

  • Jiang H. Sakamato Y. Tamai Y. Terazawa M. (2001). Proteins in the exudation sap from birch trees Betula platyphylla Sukatchev var. japonica Hara and Betula verrucosa Her. Eurasian J. For. Res. 2 59-64.

  • Kallio H. (1989). Aroma of birch syrup. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37 1367-1371.

  • Kallio H. Ahtonen S. (1987a) Seasonal variations of the acids in birch sap: [acids in birch sap]. Food Chem.25 (4) 285-292.

  • Kallio H. Ahtonen S. (1987b). Seasonal variations of the sugars in birch sap: [sugars in birch sap]. Food Chem.25 (4) 293-304.

  • Kallio H. Lahenoja M. Penttin R. (1995). Electrophoretic profiles of birch sap proteins of Betula pubescens B. pendula and B. pendula formaCarelica in Finland with reference to overall composition of sap. In: Terazawa M. (Ed.). Tree Sap (pp.13-21). Sapporo: Hokkaido University Press.

  • Kallio H. Ahtonen S. Raulo J. Linko R.R. (1985). Identification of the sugars and acids in birch sap: [about acids and sugars]. J. Food Sci.50 (1) 266-269.

  • Kallio H. Karppinen T. Holmbom B. (2006). Concentration of birch sap by reverse osmosis. J. Food Sci.50 (5) 1330-1332.

  • Kallio H. Rine S. Pangborn R.-M. Jennings W. (1987). Effect of heating on the headspace volatiles of Finnish birch syrup. Food Chem. 24 (4) 287-299.

  • Kallio H. Teerinen T. Ahtonen S. Suihko M. Linko R. R. (1989). Composition and properties of birch syrup (Betula pubescens). J. Agric. FoodChem.37 51-54.

  • Kermasha S. Goetghebeur M. Dumont J. (1995). Determination of phenolic compound profiles in maple products by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem.43 (3) 708-716.

  • Kozlowski T. T Pallardy S. G. (1997). Nitrogen metabolism. In: Physiologyof Woody Plants (pp. 189-209). New York: Academic Press.

  • Kuka M. Cakste I. Dimins F. Gersebeka E. (2010). Determination of phenolic compounds in birch and maple saps. In: Foodinnova 2010 InternationalConference on Food Innovation 25-29 October 2010. (108 p.) Valencia.

  • Kūka P. (2008). Pârtikas produktu analîþu fizikâli íîmiskâs metodes [Physical- Chemical Methods of Food Products Analysis]. Jelgava: LLU 174 lpp.

  • Legault J. Girard-Lalancette K. Grenon C. Dussault C. Pichette A. (2010). Antioxidant activity inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acersaccharum. J. Med. Food13 (2) 460-468.

  • Lowry O. H. Rosebrough N. J. Farr A. L. Randall R. J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193 (1) 265-275.

  • Patzold R. Bruckner H. (2005). Mass spectometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps syrups and fruit juice concentrates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 9722-9729.

  • Perkins T. D. van den Berg A. K. (2009). Maple syrup - production composition chemistry and sensory characteristics. In: Taylor S. (Ed.). Advancesin Food and Nutrition Research 56 (pp. 104-140). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

  • Robinson A. R. MacLean K. S. MacConnell H. M. (1989). Heavy metal pH and total solid content of maple sap and syrup produced in eastern Canada. J. Assoc. Anal. Chem. 72 (4) 674-679.

  • Sehm E. (2007). Birkensaft. Das Gesundheitselixier aus der Natur. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH. 52 S.

  • Tanner H. Brunner H. R. (1987). Getränke - Analytik. Schwäbisch Hall: Heller Chemie - Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH S. 93-94.

  • Theriault M. Caillet S. Kermasha S. Lacroix M. (2006). Antioxidant antiradical and antimutagenic activities of phenolic compounds present in maple products. Food Chem.98 (3) 490-501.

  • Wong B. L. Bagget K. L. Rye A. H. (2003.). Seasonal patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Can. J. Bot. 81 (8) 780-788.

Journal information
Impact Factor

CiteScore 2018: 0.3

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.137
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.192

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 863 523 11
PDF Downloads 450 324 7