Diet And Breast Cancer: Experiences From The Malmö Diet Cancer Cohort

Open access


The Malmö Diet Cancer (MDC) group is a population-based cohort (n = 28 098) among Malmö inhabitants, aged 45-73 years at the time of baseline examinations in 1991-1996. Data collection regarding socio-demography, anthropometry and lifestyle was extensive, and included nonfasting blood samples. A high validity diet history was used to determine the usual diet. Information regarding cancer morbidity and mortality from the Swedish Cancer Registry is assessed yearly. Findings support the accepted hypotheses that a lifetime overexposure to sex hormones (modern reproductive patterns) and obesity promote postmenopausal breast cancer. Also, women with high intakes (compared to low intakes) of fibre, folic acid and fermented milk products have lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. High intakes of alcohol and energyadjusted fat are associated with increased risk. Also, high intakes of dried soup-sauce-powders and of fried potatoes are associated with increased breast cancer risk. The MDC has two unique assets: the high validity dietary data and the well maintained bio bank. Since a multitude and diverse processes likely contribute to chronic disease the active use of biomarkers has become increasingly important to nutrition epidemiology. Clear information about the diet-breast cancer link is important to many women, because unlike reproductive factors diet is changeable throughout the lifecycle.

Berglund, G., Elmstahl, S., Janzon, L, Larsson, S.A. (1993). The Malmo Diet and Cancer Study: Design and feasibility. J. Intern. Med., 233, 45-51.

Brennan, S.F., Cantwell, M.M., Cardwell, C.R., Valentzis, L.S., Woodside, J.V. (2010). Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 91(5), 1294-1302.

Ericson, U., Ivarsson, M. Sonestedt, E., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., Wirfalt, E. (2009a). Increased breast cancer risk at high plasma folate concentrations among women with the MTHFR 677T allele. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr, Sept 16.

Ericson, U., Sonestedt, E. Gullberg, B., Olsson, H., Wirfalt, E. (2007). High folate intake is associated with lower breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr, 86(2), 434-443.

Ericson, U., Sonestedt, E., Ivarsson, M.I., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., Wirfalt, E. (2009b). Folate intake, MTHFR polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in women from the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarker Prev., 18(4), 1101-1110.

Fay, M.P., Freedman, L.S., Clifford, C.K., Midthune, D.N. (1997). Effect of different types and amounts of fat on the development of mammary tumors in rodents: A review. Cancer Res., 57, 3979-3988.

Ip, C. (1997). Review of the effects of trans fatty acids, oleic acid, n-3 poly- unsaturated fatty acids, and conjugated linoleic acid on mammary carcinogenesis in animals. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 66(suppl), 1523S-1529S.

Lahmann, P., Lissner, L., Gullberg, B., Olsson, H., Berglund, G. (2003). A prospective study of adiposity and postmenopausal breast cancer risk: The Malmo Diet and Cancer Study. Int. J. Cancer, 103(2), 246-252.

Mattisson, I., Wirfalt, E., Johansson, U., Gullberg, B., Olsson, H., Berglund, G. (2004). Intakes of plant foods, fiber and fat and risk of breast cancer - a prospective study in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Brit. J. Cancer, 90, 122-127.

Murff, H.J., Shu, X.O., Li, H., Yang, G., Wu, X., Cai, H., Wen, W., Gao, Y.T., Zheng, W. (2011). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk in Chinese women: A prospective cohort study. Int. J. Cancer, 128(6), 1434-1441.

Riboli, E., Elmstahl, S., Saracci, R., Gullberg, B., Lindgarde, F. (1997). The Malmo Food Study: Validity of Two Dietary Assessment Methods for Measuring Nutrient Intake. Int. J. Epidemiol., 26(1(Suppl 1)), S161-S173.

Sonestedt, E., Borgquist, S., Ericson, U., Gullberg, B., Landberg, G., Olsson, H., Wirfalt, E. (2008). Plant foods and oestrogen receptor {alpha} and {beta} defined breast cancer: Observations from the Malmo Diet and Can­cer cohort. Carcinogenesis, 29(11), 2203-2209.

Sonestedt, E., Borgquist, S. Ericson, U., Gullberg, B., Olsson, H., Adlercreutz, H., Landberg, G., Wirfalt, E. (2008). Enterolactone is differ­ently associated with estrogen receptor β negative and positive breast can­cer in a Swedish nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 17(11), 3241-3251.

Sonestedt, E., Ivarsson, M., Harlid, S., Ericson, U., Gullberg, B., Carlson, J., Olsson, H., Adlercreutz, H., Wirfalt, E. (2009). The protective associa­tion of high plasma enterolactone with breast cancer is reasonably robust in women with polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha and beta genes. J. Nutr., 139(5), 993-1001.

Thiebaut, A.C., Chajes, V., Gerber, M., Boutron-Ruault, M.C., Joulin, V., Lenoir, G., Berrino, F., Riboli, E., Benichou, J., Clavel-Chapelon, F. (2009). Dietary intakes of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty ac­ids and the risk of breast cancer. Int. J. Cancer, 124(4), 924-931.

Thiebaut, A.C., Kipnis, V., Schatzkin, A., Freedman, L.S. (2008). The role of dietary measurement error in investigating the hypothesized link between dietary fat intake and breast cancer - a story with twists and turns. Cancer Invest, 26(1), 68-73.

Van't Veer, P., van Leer, E.M., Rietdijk, A., Kok, F.J., Schouten, E.G., Hermus, R.J., Sturmans, F. (1991). Combination of dietary factors in relation to breast-cancer occurence. Int. J. Cancer, 47, 649-653.

Wirfalt, E., Mattisson, I., Gullberg, B., Olsson, H., Berglund, G. (2005). Fat from different foods show diverging relations with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. Nutr. Cancer, 53(2), 135-143.

Wirfalt, E., Li, C., Ericson, U., Sonestedt, E., Borgquist, S., Landberg, G., Olsson, H., Gullberg, B. (2011). Food sources of fat and sex hormone receptor status of invasive breast tumors in women of the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Nutr. Cancer: Int. J., 63(5).

Wirfalt, E., Mattisson, I., Gullberg, B., Johansson, U., Olsson, H., Berglund, G. (2002). Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with high intakes of omega6 fatty acids (Sweden). Cancer Causes Contr., 13(10), 883-893.

Wolk, A., Bergstrom, R., Hunter, D., Willett, W., Ljung, H., Holmberg, L., Bergkvist, L., Bruce, A., Adami, H.O. (1998). A prospective study of association of monounsaturated fat and other types of fat with risk of breast cancer. Arch. Intern. Med., 158, 41-45.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.22

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.127
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.211


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 156 156 8
PDF Downloads 60 60 4