Diet And Breast Cancer: Experiences From The Malmö Diet Cancer Cohort

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Abstract

The Malmö Diet Cancer (MDC) group is a population-based cohort (n = 28 098) among Malmö inhabitants, aged 45-73 years at the time of baseline examinations in 1991-1996. Data collection regarding socio-demography, anthropometry and lifestyle was extensive, and included nonfasting blood samples. A high validity diet history was used to determine the usual diet. Information regarding cancer morbidity and mortality from the Swedish Cancer Registry is assessed yearly. Findings support the accepted hypotheses that a lifetime overexposure to sex hormones (modern reproductive patterns) and obesity promote postmenopausal breast cancer. Also, women with high intakes (compared to low intakes) of fibre, folic acid and fermented milk products have lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. High intakes of alcohol and energyadjusted fat are associated with increased risk. Also, high intakes of dried soup-sauce-powders and of fried potatoes are associated with increased breast cancer risk. The MDC has two unique assets: the high validity dietary data and the well maintained bio bank. Since a multitude and diverse processes likely contribute to chronic disease the active use of biomarkers has become increasingly important to nutrition epidemiology. Clear information about the diet-breast cancer link is important to many women, because unlike reproductive factors diet is changeable throughout the lifecycle.

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