On Psychosomatic Problems in Dentistry

Nada Pop-Jordanova 1  and Sofija Loleska 2
  • 1 Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, , Skopje
  • 2


In their daily practice dentists frequently have patients showing signs of stress-related oral manifestations in different forms. Stress-related aetiology of oral changes are still not investigated enough, and present a subgroup of psychosomatic diseases which had been recognized in medicine a long time ago. Recognition of such psychological or emotional disturbance needs deep evaluation “per exclusionem”, and is beneficial for both the patient and clinician. Psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these psychosomatic disorders. Therapeutic approach comprises different forms of psychotherapy and medication as well.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Pop-Jordanov J., Pop-Jordanova N. Inverse causality model in social and health risk assessment, The First Conference of the European Section of the Society for Risk analysis, IIASA, 1988: 49.

  • 2. Toyofuku A. Psychosomatic problems in dentistry. Biopsychosoc Med. 2016 Apr 30; 10:14. doi: 10.1186/s13030-016-0068-2. PMID: 27134647; PMCID: PMC4851772.

  • 3. McCarthy PL, Shklar G. Diseases of the oral mucosa. Philadelphia, 1980, Lea&Febiger.

  • 4. Pop-Jordanova N., Sarakinova O., Markovska-Simoska S., Loleska S. Anxiety and Personality Characteristics in Children Undergoing Dental Interventions. Contributions. MASA (Sec. Med. Sci.). 2013; 34 (3): 93–103.

  • 5. Pop-Jordanova N, Sarakinova O, Loleska S. Coping styles used for mediation dental anxiety and stress in school children. Contributions. Sec. of Med. Sci., XXXIX 1, 2018: 97–103

  • 6. Pop-Jordanova N, Sarakinova O, Pop-Stefanova-Trposka M, Zabokova-Bilbilova E, Kostadinovska E. Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings. Open Access Maced J Med Sci electronic publication ahead of print, published on April 05, 2018 as https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.184

  • 7. Sato C., et al. Bruxism affects stress responses in stressed rats. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2010; 14.2: 153–160.

  • 8. Nisar H, Srivastava R. Fundamental concept of psychosomatic disorders: a review. International Journal of Contemporary Medicine Surgery and Radiology. 2018; 3(1): 12–18.

  • 9. Shetty S, Pitti V, [...], and B. C. Deepthi. Bruxism: A Literature Review. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2010 Sep; 10(3): 141–148.

  • 10. Laat A, Macaluso GM. Sleep bruxism as a motor disorder. Mov Disord. 2002; 17: S67–S69. doi: 10.1002/mds.10064.

  • 11. Ohayon MM, Li KK, Guilleminault C. Risk factors for sleep bruxism in the general population. Chest. 2001; 119: 53–61. doi: 10.1378/chest.119.1.53.

  • 12. Tibor Karoly Fabian. Psychosomatic Dentistry. A Review. EC DENTAL SCIENCE 6.4 (2016): 1350–1357.

  • 13. World Health Organization World oral health report 2003. WHO, Geneva: Available from: http://www.who.int/oral_health/media/en/orh_report03_en.pdf [Accessed 17.01.2011] [Google Scholar]

  • 14. Поп-Јорданова Н. Психо-социјални аспекти на хронична орофацијална болка, Стоматолошка ревија, 2007; 3 (2): 30–33.

  • 15. Renton T. Dental (Odontogenic) Pain, Rev Pain. 2011 Mar; 5(1): 2–7. doi: 10.1177/204946371100500102 PMCID: PMC4590084 PMID: 26527224

  • 16. Dworkin SF and Sherman J. Chronic orofacial pain: biobehavioral perspectives. In: D.I. Mostofsky, A.G. Forgione & D.B. Giddon (Eds.) Behavioral dentistry. Blackwell Munksgaard, Ames (Iowa) (2006): 99–113.

  • 17. Bhateja S, Gupta H, Chouhan S, Sansanwal M, Arora G. Behavioural medicine for oral psychosomatic disorders. J Nutr, Metab Health Sci, 2019; 2(3): 71–8.

  • 18. Kelleher MG, Rasaratnam L, Djemal S. The Paradoxes of Phantom Bite Syndrome or Occlusal Dysaesthesia (‘Dysesthesia’). Dent Update. 2017 Jan;44(1): 8–12, 15–20, 23–4, 26–8, 30–2.

  • 19. Sutter BA. Phantom bite: a real or a phantom diagnosis? A case report. Gen Dent. 2017 Sep-Oct; 65(5): 41–46.

  • 20. Toyofuku A. Psychosomatic problems in dentistry. Biopsychosoc Med. 2016 Apr 30; 10:14. doi: 10.1186/s13030-016-0068-2. PMID: 27134647; PMCID: PMC4851772.

  • 21. Phillips KA, Menard W. Olfactory reference syndrome: demographic and clinical features of imagined body odor. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011;33(4):398–406. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.04.004.

  • 22. Takahashi T, Fuke T, Washizuka S, Hanihara T, Amano N. A review of recent case reports of cenesthopathy in Japan. Psychogeriatrics. 2013;13(3): 196–8. doi: 10.1111/psyg.12015.

  • 23. Umezaki Y, Miura A, [...], and Toyofuku A. Oral cenesthopathy. Biopsychosoc Med. 2016; 10: 20. Published online 2016 Jun 10. doi: 10.1186/s13030-016-0071-7

  • 24. Watanabe M, Katagiri A, Umezaki Y, Sakuma T, Sako E, Yoshikawa T, Takenoshita M, Sato Y, Toyofuku A. Clinico-statistical study on 1210 out-patients examined at the department of Psychosomatic Dentistry (2009–2011) Jpn J Psychosom Dent. 2012; 27: 37–43.

  • 25. Pop-Jordanova N. Stress and galvanic skin response, Зборник на апстракти: Прв Конгрес на неврохирурзите и невротрауматолозите на Македонија, Охрид, 26–30 Август 1998, МНЗ, 1998 / Book of abstracts: First Congress of Neurological surgeons of Republic of Macedonia, Ohrid, 26–30 august 1998, MNS, 1998: 46.

  • 26. Pop-Jordanova N. Psychological stress in adolescent patients and biofeedback aided coping, Abstracts’ book: Youth dignity: coping with rights and duties, Milan, 11–13 June, 1998, Universita Ambrosiana, Milano, 1998: 12.

  • 27. Pop-Jordanova N. Electrodermal response-based biofeedback in pediatric patients, Paediatr. Croat., 1999; 43: 117–1.

  • 28. Pop-Jordanova N., Pop-Jordanov J. Psychosomatic disorders and electrodermal biofeedback, Abstracts: International Jubilee [50th World Psychiatric Organization] Congress “From Clinical Practice to Research: Rethinking Psychiatry”, Paris, France, June 26-30, 2000, [Fédération Française de Psychiatrie, Paris], 2000: 82.

  • 29. Rai A, Kumar A. Stress related oral disorders: an update, Annals and Essences of Dentistry. 2017; Vol. IX Issue 4 Oct–Dec 2017.

  • 30. Chen, Y.J., et al., Psychological stress alters ultra-structure and energy metabolism of masticatory muscle in rats. J Biomed Biotechnol, 2010. 2010: p.302693.

  • 31. Cole, N.B., et al., Oxidative stress causes reversible changes in mitochondrial permeability and structure. Exp Gerontol, 2010. 45(7–8): p. 596–602.

  • 32. Chan, D.C., Mitochondrial fusion and fission in mammals. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 2006. 22: p. 79–99.

  • 33. Wang, X., et al., Impaired balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurosci, 2009; 29(28): p. 9090–103.

  • 34. Bhateja S, Gupta H, Chouhan S, Sansanwal M, Arora G. Behavioural medicine for oral psychosomatic disorders. IP Journal of Nutrition, Metabolism and Health Science, July-September, 2019; 2(3): 71–78.

  • 35. Berggren U and Carlsson SG. A psychophysiological therapy for dental fear. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1984; 22.5: 487–492.

  • 36. Berggren U., et al. Relaxation vs. cognitively oriented therapies for dental fear. Journal of Dental Research 2000; 79.9: 1645–1651.

  • 37. Carlsson SG., et al. Reduction of tension in fearful dental patients. Journal of the American Dental Association 1980; 101.4: 638–641.

  • 38. Turner JA., et al. Short- and long-term efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioural therapy for patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain: A randomized, controlled trial. Pain.2006; 121.3: 181–194.


Journal + Issues