Jakub Chlebowski, Rector Magnificus Exultus – A Distinguished Professor of Internal Medicine in Postwar North-East Poland

Open access

Abstract

Jakub Chlebowski (Jakub Frydman) (1905-1969) was a distinguished professor of internal medicine and skillful organizer of health care system in Bialystok region in the North east Poland. He graduated medicine in 1929 and worked at local university in prewar Vilnius. During World War Two, arrested by the Soviets and exiled to Siberian work camps he managed to return to Poland with Kosciuszko Division of Polish Army. Then, he continued to serve as a military and university medical doctor in Cracow and Lodz, finally to take over position of director of Internal Diseases Department in 1951 in Bialystok, holding an office of rector magnificus of Medical University of Bialystok from 1959 to 1962. Chlebowski trained generations of internal medicine specialists, who later became eminent representatives of emerging branches of internal medicine as distinct subspecialties in the field of cardiology, endocrinology and gastroenterology in Bialystok. In course of anti-Semitic campaign during March Events in 1968, he was disposed from the post of director of the university hospital department. Constantly harassed, he immigrated with the family to Israel to die in public traffic accident in 1969. Jakub Frydman, who survived not only hunger of food, but also metaphorical “hunger of humanity” during World War Two, turned out to be as good and useful as daily bread for Polish community after wartime. He was so devoted in this action, that he even changed his surname into Chlebowski (Polish: Chleb=English: Bread). In this way, due to similar experience and experience-shaped mentality, Chlebowski could be counted among medical authorities of the time, the individuals with such a high moral standard as Janusz Korczak (1878 or 1879-1942) or Julian Kramsztyk (1851-1926).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Kaliciński A. Obituary: Professor Jakub Frydman Chlebowski M.D. (1905-1969). [Prof. dr hab. Jakub Frydman Chlebowski (1905-1969)] in a book edited by Professor Edward Bańkowski at al. titled Those who passed away. Biographies of professors and distinguished employees [Ci którzy odeszli. Biografie profesorów i zasłużonych pracowników]. Białystok: Akademia Medyczna 1990; 1-149 pages 26–28.

  • 2. Stasiewicz J. Profesor Jakub Chlebowski 1905 – 1969. [Biuletyn - pismo Okręgowej Izby Lekarskiej] 201; 4: 1.

  • 3. Stasiewicz J. Professor Jakub Chlebowski(1905-1968). On the centenary of birth [Profesor Jakub Chlebowski (1905–1969). W stulecie urodzin.] [Biuletyn - pismo Okręgowej Izby lekarskiej] 2005; 4: 1.

  • 4. Sadowska J. March 1968 in Bialystok [Marzec 1968 w Białymstoku]. Podlaskie Studies [Studia Podlaskie] Bialystok 2003; 13: 183–196.

  • 5. Chlebowski J. Own experiences of an internist in teaching of students of the medical faculties. [Własne doświadczenie internisty w nauczaniu studentów Wydziału Lekarskiego AM]. Public Health [Zdrowie Publiczne] 1967; 78: 819–823.

  • 6. Chlebowski J. [15th anniversary of the II Clinic of Internal Diseases of the Medical Academy in Białystok]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 39: 113–6.

  • 7. Frydman J. Non-hospital care for patients in Par-is so-called Service social a l’ hopital [Opieka pozaszpitalna nad chorymi w Paryżu tzw. Service social a l’ hospital]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1934; 8: 432–433.

  • 8. Frydman J. Impressions from a science travel to Paris and Vienna [Wrażenia z podróży naukowej do Paryża i Wiednia]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1934; 8: 67–70.

  • 9. http://www.bialystok.ap.gov.pl/arch/bit/marzec68/akademia_medyczna/index.html

  • 10. Frydman J. Ways and sideways of diabetic treatment [Bezdroża i drogi leczenia dietetycznego cukrzycy]. Polish Medical Newspaper [Pol Gaz Lek] 1935; 14: 756–758.

  • 11. Frydman J. Diabetes and cardiovascular disorders [Cukrzyca a zaburzenia układu krążenia]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1934; 8: 81–86.

  • 12. Frydman J. General principles of dietary treatment of diabetes [Ogólne zasady leczenia dietetycznego cukrzycy]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1935; 9: 383–384.

  • 13. Borysewicz J Chlebowski J. The mechanism of insulin influence on the vascular oscillations [O mechanizmie wpływu insuliny na wahania oscylometryczne]. Polish Medical Weekly [Pol Tyg Lek] 1957; 12: 999–1000.

  • 14. Chlebowski J Klimiuk L. Uropepsin and 17-ketosteroid excretion in patients with chronic respiratory failure [Wydzielanie uropepsyny i 17-ketosterydów u chorych w przebiegu niewydolności oddechowej]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1963; 33: 863–868.

  • 15. Chlebowski J W. Wiechowski. A clinically accessible method of quantitative determination of ketonic bodies in the urine [Klinicznie dostępny sposób ilościowego oznaczania ciał ketonowych w moczu] Pol Arch Intern Med 1956; 26: 1119–1120.

  • 16. Chlebowski J Rostafińska J Wasilewska A. Atypical diabetic coma. Two case reports [Dwa przypadki nietypowej śpiączki w przebiegu cukrzycy]. Wiad Lek 1965; 18: 425–427.

  • 17. Chlebowski J. [Enteropathia diabetica]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1966; 37: 253–6.

  • 18. Chlebowski J. [Studies on diabetic enteropathy]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1966; 37: 263–6.

  • 19. Chlebowski J Stasiewicz J Straczkowski W. [Sigmographic studies in diabetic enteropathies and blood sugar variations]. Wien Z Inn Med 1967; 48: 348–52.

  • 20. Chlebowski J Stasiewicz J Strączkowski W. Sigmographische Untersuchungen bei derEnteropathia diabetica und bei Glykämieschwankungen. Wiener Zeitschrift für innere Medizin 1967; 48: 348–352.

  • 21. Stasiewicz J Chlebowski J Gabryelewicz A Strączkowski W Szałaj W. Zachowanie się sigmogramu w różnych stanach glikemii. Sigmographic pattern as related to glycemia. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 38: 65–71.

  • 22. Chlebowski J Gabryelewicz A Stasiewicz J Strączkowski W Szałaj W. Sigmographic studies in certain endocrine diseases [Badania sigmograficzne w wybranych zaburzeniach endokrynologicznych]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 39: 131–7.

  • 23. Chlebowski J. [Sigmography and its application in various endocrine disorders]. J Med Bord 1967; 144: 685–96.

  • 24. Chlebowski J. La sigmographie et son application dans certains troubles endocriniens. Journal de Médicine de Bordeaux et du Sud-Ouest 1967; 144: 685–696.

  • 25. Chlebowski J Kaliciński A Kinalska I Szalaj W Zablocka I. Studies on the effect of insulin on the cell membrane of blood cells. Pol Med J 1968; 7: 813–6.

  • 26. Chlebowski J Kaliciński A Kinalska I Szalaj W Zablocka I. [Studies on the effect of insulin on the cellular membranes of the morphologic elements of blood]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 39: 139–42.

  • 27. Kaliciński A Kinalska I Chlebowski J.[Effect of insulin and other hormones on penetration of cobalt ion and vitamin B 12 into liver cells]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 39: 175–80.

  • 28. Chlebowski J Kalicinski A Kalicinska Z Kinalska I Pawlicka E Proniewska W. L’influence de l’insuline et de la vasopressine sur la repartition du sodium dans les tissus. [Influence of insulin and vasopressin on sodium distribution in tissues]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu 1968; 9: 125–31.

  • 29. Kalicinski A Kalicinska Z Kinalska I Pawlicka E Proniewska W Chlebowski J. [Influence of insulin and vasopressin on potassium distribution in tissues]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu 1968; 9: 133–7.

  • 30. Chlebowski J Warmus M Rostafińska J Wasilewska A Wartak J Bogdanik T. Mathematical discrimination of glycemic curves in obesity hypertension and myocardial infarction. Pol Med J 1968; 7: 817–24.

  • 31. Chlebowski J Warmus M Rostafińska J Wasilewska A Wartak J Bogdanik T. [Mathematical discrimination of glycemic curves in obesity hypertension and myocardial infarction]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 39: 143–50.

  • 32. Chlebowski J Wartak J Bogdanik T. Attempt at applying a mathematical model to the early diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetologia 1966; 2: 144.

  • 33. Chlebowski J. The peroral drugs in the treatment of diabetes [Przetwory doustne w leczeniu cukrzycy]. Railway Medical Service [Kolejowa Służba Zdrowia] 1961; 6: 56–59.

  • 34. Wartak J Chlebowski J Warmus M Zietkowska C Zietkowski B Bogdanik T. [Mathematical evaluation of glycemic curves after chlorothiazide administration]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1967; 39: 219–27.

  • 35. Chlebowski J Chmielewski J Klepacki Z. Investigations on the action of hypoglycaemic sulfonamides and sulfonurea on the vascular oscillations [Badania nad wpływem sulfonamidów i sulfimocznika na wahania oscylometryczne]. Annals of Medical University in Bialystok [Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku] 1958; 4: 159–164.

  • 36. Chlebowski J Jaworowska A Rostafińska J. Influence of phenobarbital on the blood sugar level [Wpływ luminalu na poziom glikemii]. Annals of Medical University in Bialystok [Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku] 1958; 4: 165–171.

  • 37. Chlebowski J Wasilewska A. The hypoglicemizing effect of aspirine [Działanie hipoglikemizujące aspiryny]. Polish Medical Weekly [Pol Tyg Lek] 1960; 15: 128–131.

  • 38. Chlebowski J. Some aspects of the carbohydrate metabolism in the obese. Pol Arch Intern Med 1969; 42: 355–8.

  • 39. Chlebowski J. Principles of diabetic treatment of diabetes on the basis of physiopathological data [Zasady dietetycznego leczenia cukrzycy w oparciu na danych fizjopatologicznych]. Wiad Lek 1968; 21: 29–33.

  • 40. Strączkowski W Chlebowski J Gabryelewicz A Stasiewicz J Szałaj W. Sigmography - a clinical method for study of sigmoid colon motility [Sigmografia jako kliniczna metoda badania motoryki esicy]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1966; 36: 663–665.

  • 41. Chlebowski J Gabryelewicz A Stasiewicz J Straczkowski W Szalaj W. Studies on sigmoid colon activity in diabetes and hyperthyroidism. Pol Med Sci Hist Bull 1968; 11: 34–7.

  • 42. Chlebowski J Gabryelewicz A Stasiewicz J Strączkowski W Szałaj W. L’activité motrice de l’intestin sigmoide dans les troubles de la glycémie. Rev Franç Gastr-Ent 1966; 17: 17–20.

  • 43. Frydman J. The use of histidine in the treatment of gastrointestinal mucosa ulcer [Stosowanie histydyny w leczeniu owrzodzeń śluzówki przewodu pokarmowego]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1937; 11: 124–127.

  • 44. Frydman J. Response to comments of Dr A. Perezowski and S Januszkiewicz in connection with the work titled. The use of histidine in the treatment of gastrointestinal mucosa ulcer [Odpowiedź na uwagi Drów A. Perezowskiego i S Januszkiewicza w związku z pracą pt. Stosowanie histydyny w leczeniu owrzodzeń śluzówki przewodu pokarmowego]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1937; 11: 408–409.

  • 45. Januszkiewicz S. Remarks to the article by Dr. J Frydman and J. Iwanter. Use of histidine in the treatment of gastrointestinal mucosa ulcer [Uwagi do artykułu drów J Frydmana i J Iwantera Stosowanie histydyny w leczeniu owrzodzeń śluzówki przewodu pokarmowego]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1937; 11: 408.

  • 46. Gabryelewicz A Niewiarowski S Prokopowicz J Chlebowski J. Heparin and protease inhibitors in the prevention of experimental acute pancreatic necrosis in dogs. Digestion 1969; 2: 7–16.

  • 47. Chlebowski J. The clinical diagnosis of intestinal infarction [Kliniczne rozpoznawanie zawałów jelit]. Pol Tyg Lek 1956; 11: 1799–1802.

  • 48. Chlebowski J. An attempt at explaining the pathogenesis and danger of peptic ulcer disease in the course of circulation failure [Próba wyjaśnienia patogenezy oraz niebezpieczeństwa choroby wrzodowej w przebiegu niewydolności krążenia]. Pol Tyg Lek 1957; 12: 762–764.

  • 49. Frydman J. A contribution to the neurodegenerative disorders [Przyczynek do zaburzeń naczynionerwowych]. Med. 1932; 6: 713–720.

  • 50. Chlebowski J. Concerning moniliasis [W sprawie moniliazy]. Przeg Lek 1955; 11: 198–201.

  • 51. Chlebowski J Zabłocki M. On the treatment of tapeworms [Usuwanie tasiemców]. Wiad Lek 1956; 9: 56–59.

  • 52. Chlebowski J. Clinical value of the classification of pulmonary abscesses as acute and chronic ones [Znaczenie kliniczne podziału ropni płuc na ostre i przewlekłe]. Przeg Lek 1955; 11:161–163.

  • 53. Frydman J. Malignant neoplasms of the lower respiratory tract (in the light of observations made in the 1st USB internal clinic in Vilnius [Nowotwory złośliwe dolnych dróg oddechowych (w świetle obserwacyj poczynionych w I klinice wewnętrznej USB w Wilnie]. Pol Gaz Lek 1932; 11: 534–537 557–560 578–582.

  • 54. Tjokrowidjaja A Cho D Baillie T Sivasubramaniam R Moses J Lee CK A most malignant malady’: a rare case of laryngeal tuberculosis in epidermal growth factor receptor mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Intern Med J 2017; 47: 1215–1216.

  • 55. Chlebowski J. Les régimes de restriction protidique dans l’urémie. Strasbourg Medical 1967; 18: 746–758.

  • 56. Bogdanikowa B Chlebowski J Zabłocka I Kowal E. The incidence of pancytopenia in patients of the 1st and 2nd Clinics of Internal Diseases Białystok Medical Academy during the period 1955–1961 [Przypadki pancytopenii wśród chorych leczonych w Klinikach Wewnętrznych w Białymstoku w latach 1955-1961]. Annals of Medical University in Bialystok [Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku] 1963; 9: 41–53.

  • 57. Chlebowski J Komczyński L Zabłocka I. The primary erythroblastosis [Erytroblastoza pierwotna]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1957; 27: 533–540.

  • 58. Chlebowski J Kaliciński A Kowal E Zabłocka I. A case of Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. A contribution to studies on paraglobulinemias [Przypadek makroglobulinemii Waldenströma. Przyczynek do badań nad paraglobulinemią]. Pol Arch Intern Med 1963; 33: 407–412.

  • 59. Chlebowski J Kisiel L. Zachowanie się miejscowej leukocytozy w żółtaczkach. Changes in the leukocyte count in icterus. Annals of Medical University in Bialystok [Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku] 1955; 1: 277–291.

  • 60. Chlebowski J Komczyński L Rostafińska J. Aortic arch syndrome (Takayashu disease) [Zespół łuku aorty (zespół Takayashu)]. Kardiologia Polska 1959; 2: 31–35.

  • 61. Jakub Chlebowski B. Borowska. Tietze’s syndrome [Zespół Tietzego]. Przegl Lek 1956; 12: 265–267.

  • 62. Chlebowski J Propkopczuk J. [Trial of Sjögren’s syndrome treatment with arechin (Resochin)]. Pol Tyg Lek 1966; 21: 997–8.

  • 63. Frydman J. The influence of mineral water from the source No. 1 in Busko on the stomach activity [Wpływ mineralnej wody ze źródła nr 1 w Busku na czynność żołądka]. Medicine [Medycyna] 1934; 8: 185–192.

  • 64. Busłowicz N Chlebowski J Kaliciński A. The influence of the dry remnant of aqueous fraction of the mineral water “Iwonka” on the gastric juice. Preliminary report [Wpływ suchej pozostałości wodnej frakcji “Iwonki” na sok żołądkowy]. Balneologia Polska 1963; 12: 153–154.

  • 65. Jakub Chlebowski. On the circulatory system disease (heart and blood vessels) [O chorobach układu krążenia (serca i naczyń krwionośnych)]. First edition PZWL 1953 pp.73 2nd Edition 1954 pp. 73.

  • 66. Chlebowski J. Zaburzenia krążenia płucnego. The disorders of pulmonary circulation. Choroby wewnętrzne. T. 1. Red. E. Szczeklik. Warszawa : PZWL 1965 pp. 350–438

  • 67. Chlebowski J. Internal diseases. A manual for the secondary medical schools [ Choroby wewnętrzne. Podręcznik dla średnich szkół medycznych]. 1st 2nd Edition Warszawa : PZWL 1st Edition 1954 pp.392 2nd Edition 1962 pp. 430.

  • 68. Chlebowski J. Internal diseases. (Alimentary tract circulatory system and respiratory system diseases). Choroby wewnętrzne. (Choroby przewodu pokarmowego układu krążenia i oddechowego). Białystok : Akademia Medyczna 1960 pp. 119.

  • 69. Chlebowski J. Jak odżywiać się w zdrowiu i chorobie. The nourishment in health and disease. Warszawa : PZWL 1954 pp. 89.

  • 70. Chlebowski J. Podstawowe wiadomości z dietetyki. Basic informations in dietetics. Warszawa : Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich 1952 pp. 220.

  • 71. Stola D. Post March Emigration [Emigracja pomarcowa]. Institute for Social Studies University of Warsaw. Migration works [Prace migracyjne] 2000; 34: 1–21.

  • 72. Bernacki E. Medical Doctors of Bialystok region. Post-war years. Memories and CVs “District Medical Chamber Historical Fascicles” [Lekarze Białostocczyzny. Lata powojenne. Wspomnienia i życiorysy”Okręgowa Izba lekarska. Zeszyty Historyczne”] 1994; 4: 10.

  • 73. Jagielski J. Polish Citizenship Warsaw 1998 p. 123

  • 74. Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of October 27 2005 II OSK 965/05 judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of October 14 2005 reference number act II OSK 267/05 Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of 28 March 2007 II OSK 479/06 Judgment of the Supreme Administrative Court of October 14 2005 Ref. act II OSK 267/05.

  • 75. Burke K. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose - 1935. 99056219 - Online Research Library: Questia”. www.questia.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.

  • 76. Burke K. A Grammar of Motives – 1945 by.-Online Research Library: Questia”. www.questia.com. Retrieved 22 October 2017.

  • 77. Polenaković M. One hundred years since the birth of academician Dimitar Arsov founder and nestor of the modern internal medicine in the Republic of Macedonia. Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki). 2013; 34(1): 15-40.

  • 78. Karanfilski B. Centenary of the Birth of Academician Prof. Dr. Isak Tadzer Founder of the Pathophysiology and Nuclear Medicine in Macedonia. Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki). 2017 Sep 1; 38(2): 9–17.

  • 79. Woltanowski P Wincewicz A Sulkowski S. Protection of Children’s Human Rights and Health: A Legacy of Julian Kramsztyk Janusz Korczak and Ludwik Rajchman. Glob Pediatr Health. 2018 Jan 23;5:2333794X17754157. doi: 10.1177/2333794X17754157. eCollection 2018.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2017: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.177

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 125 125 7
PDF Downloads 92 92 3