Introduction: Covering a handful of decades but spanning across two centuries, mobile phones announced the dawn of the technological revolution, standing at the forefront as its′ most prominent symbol. Over the course of their sovereign dominance, human generations born with the birth of the mobile phone reached the age of maturity, while scientific community started reaching for experience-based perceptivity.
Aim: The following review serves as a short-cut across a half-decade old research gap, and a clear-cut analysis on the cutting-edge knowledge of the EMF induced EEG changes.
Material and Methods: The selection covers 28 articles about mobile phone effects on resting wakeful EEG in humans conducted over the last two decades, across three continents and 12 countries, of which 75% had positive findings.
Conclusions: At present, the general protocol of a typical study includes investigations on adults (20-60 yrs) grouped in smaller samples and exposed to shorter intervals of GSM-like pulse-modulated signal (10-30 subjects/minutes). The assessment usually involves linear methods for quantitative analysis, while the results mostly revolve around posterior increase in alpha and beta frequency range. The qualitative variations, however, remain open to interpretation. Future research may benefit from multiplication of sub-specific studies leading to replication of more consistent results. The long-term and large-size epidemiologic studies, stratified by age and gender, may also improve the expected outcomes. Regarding the interpretation, non-linear methods could be employed for assessment of individual variations. The emphasis should be placed on theories/measures for better understanding of the subtle interplay between the spectral individualities and mobile phone radiation specifics.
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Bachmann M, Lass J, Hinrikus H. Spectral asymmetry index and Higuchi′s fractal dimension for detecting microwave radiation effect on electroencephalographic signal. Proc. Est. Acad. Sci. 2014; 63: 234.
COST Action BM0704: Emerging EMF Technologies and Health Risk Management. European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research - COST. 2007. Available on: http://w3.cost.eu/fileadmin/domain_files/BMBS/Action_BM0704/mou/BM0704-e.pdf
Croft RJ, Hamblin DL, Spong J, Wood AW, McKenzie RJ, Stough C. The effect of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the alpha rhythm of human electroencephalogram. Bioelectromagnetics 2008; 29: 1-10.
EU FP6 SAFE-EMF Project: Upgrading the research capacities for safety and health effects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields. 2009. Available on: http://cordis.europa.eu/documents/documentlibrary/125823131EN6.pdf.
Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J. Parametric mechanism of excitation of the electroencephalographic rhythms by modulated microwave radiation. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2011; 87: 1077-1085.
Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J, Karai D, Tuulik V. Effect of low frequency modulated microwave exposure on human EEG: individual sensitivity. Bioelectromagnetics. 2008a; 29: 527-538.
Hinrikus H, Bachmann M, Lass J, Tomson R, Tuulik V. Effect of 7, 14 and 21 Hz modulated 450 MHz microwave radiation on human electroencephalographic rhythms. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2008b. 84: 69-79.
Hinrikus H, Parts M, Lass J, Tuulik V. Changes in human EEG caused by low level modulated microwave stimulation. Bioelectromagnetics. 2004; 25: 431-440.
Hountala CD, Maganioti AE, Papageorgiou CC, Nanou ED, Kyprianou MA, Tsiafakis VG, Rabavilas AD, Capsalis CN. The spectral power coherence of the EEG under different EMF conditions. Neurosci. Lett. 2008; 441: 188-192.
Huber R, Treyer V, Borbély AA, Schuderer J, Gottselig JM, Landolt H-P, Werth E, Berthold T, Kuster N, Buck A, Achermann P. Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phones, alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG. J. Sleep Res. 2002; 11: 289-295.
Isa R, Pasya I, Taib M, Jahidin A, Omar W, Fuad N. Classification of Brainwave Asymmetry Influenced by Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Emission. Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci. 2013; 97: 538-545.
Juutilainen J, Höytö A, Kumlin T, Naarala J. Review of possible modulation-dependent biological effects of radiofrequency fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011; 32: 511-534.
Kramarenko AV, Tan U. Effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human EEG: a brain mapping study. Int. J. Neurosci. 2003; 113: 1007-1019.
Kwon MS, Hämäläinen H. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies. Bioelectromagnetics. 2011; 32: 253-272.
Loughran SP, Benz DC, Schmid MR, Murbach M, Kuster N, Achermann P. No increased sensitivity in brain activity of adolescents exposed to mobile phone-like emissions. Clin. Neurophysiol. Off. J. Int. Fed. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2013; 124: 1303-1308.
Marino AA, Carrubba S. The effects of mobile-phone electromagnetic fields on brain electrical activity: a critical analysis of the literature. Electromagn. Biol. Med. 2009; 28: 250-274.
Perentos N, Croft RJ, McKenzie RJ, Cosic I. The alpha band of the resting electroencephalogram under pulsed and continuous radio frequency exposures. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 2013; 60: 1702-1710.
Perentos N, Croft RJ, McKenzie RJ, Cvetkovic D, Cosic I. Comparison of the effects of continuous and pulsed mobile phone like RF exposure on the human EEG. Australas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med. Support. Australas. Coll. Phys. Sci. Med. Australas. Assoc. Phys. Sci. Med. 2007; 30: 274-280.
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Regel SJ, Gottselig JM, Schuderer J, Tinguely G, Rétey JV, Kuster N, Landolt H-P, Achermann P. Pulsed radio frequency radiation affects cognitive performance and the waking electroencephalogram. Neuroreport. 2007; 18: 803-807.
Van Rongen E, Croft R, Juutilainen J, Lagroye I, Miyakoshi J, Saunders R, de Seze R, Tenforde T, Verschaeve L, Veyret B, Xu Z. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the human nervous system. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 2009; 12: 572-597.
Suhhova A, Bachmann M, Karai D, Lass J, Hinrikus H. Effect of microwave radiation on human EEG at two different levels of exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 2013; 34: 264-274.
Valentini E, Curcio G, Moroni F, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L, Bertini M. Neurophysiological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields on humans: a comprehensive review. Bioelectromagnetics 2007; 28: 415-432.
Vecchio F, Babiloni C, Ferreri F, Buffo P, Cibelli G, Curcio G, van Dijkman S, Melgari J-M, Giambattistelli F, Rossini PM. Mobile phone emission modulates interhemispheric functional coupling of EEG alpha rhythms in elderly compared to young subjects. Clin. Neurophysiol. Off. J. Int. Fed. Clin. Neurophysiol. 2010; 121: 163-171.
Vijayalaxmi, Scarfi MR. International and national expert group evaluations: biological/health effects of radiofrequency fields. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 2014; 11: 9376-9408.