Brain Topography of Emf-Induced Eeg-Changes in Restful Wakefulness: Tracing Current Effects, Targeting Future Prospects

Biljana Gjoneska 1 , Simona Markovska-Simoska 1 , Hiie Hinrikus 2 , Nada Pop-Jordanova 1 ,  and Jordan Pop-Jordanov 1
  • 1 Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, R. Macedonia
  • 2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia


Introduction: Covering a handful of decades but spanning across two centuries, mobile phones announced the dawn of the technological revolution, standing at the forefront as its′ most prominent symbol. Over the course of their sovereign dominance, human generations born with the birth of the mobile phone reached the age of maturity, while scientific community started reaching for experience-based perceptivity.

Aim: The following review serves as a short-cut across a half-decade old research gap, and a clear-cut analysis on the cutting-edge knowledge of the EMF induced EEG changes.

Material and Methods: The selection covers 28 articles about mobile phone effects on resting wakeful EEG in humans conducted over the last two decades, across three continents and 12 countries, of which 75% had positive findings.

Conclusions: At present, the general protocol of a typical study includes investigations on adults (20-60 yrs) grouped in smaller samples and exposed to shorter intervals of GSM-like pulse-modulated signal (10-30 subjects/minutes). The assessment usually involves linear methods for quantitative analysis, while the results mostly revolve around posterior increase in alpha and beta frequency range. The qualitative variations, however, remain open to interpretation. Future research may benefit from multiplication of sub-specific studies leading to replication of more consistent results. The long-term and large-size epidemiologic studies, stratified by age and gender, may also improve the expected outcomes. Regarding the interpretation, non-linear methods could be employed for assessment of individual variations. The emphasis should be placed on theories/measures for better understanding of the subtle interplay between the spectral individualities and mobile phone radiation specifics.

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